Send to

Choose Destination
J Bacteriol. 2009 May;191(10):3226-36. doi: 10.1128/JB.01410-08. Epub 2009 Feb 27.

Similar and divergent effects of ppGpp and DksA deficiencies on transcription in Escherichia coli.

Author information

Department of Molecular Biology, Umeå University, S-90187 Umeå, Sweden.


The concerted action of ppGpp and DksA in transcription has been widely documented. In disparity with this model, phenotypic studies showed that ppGpp and DksA might also have independent and opposing roles in gene expression in Escherichia coli. In this study we used a transcriptomic approach to compare the global transcriptional patterns of gene expression in strains deficient in ppGpp (ppGpp(0)) and/or DksA (DeltadksA). Approximately 6 and 7% of all genes were significantly affected by more than twofold in ppGpp- and DksA-deficient strains, respectively, increasing to 13% of all genes in the ppGpp(0) DeltadksA strain. Although the data indicate that most of the affected genes were copositively or conegatively regulated by ppGpp and DksA, some genes that were independently and/or differentially regulated by the two factors were found. The large functional group of chemotaxis and flagellum synthesis genes were notably differentially affected, with all genes being upregulated in the DksA-deficient strain but 60% of them being downregulated in the ppGpp-deficient strain. Revealingly, mutations in the antipausing Gre factors suppress the upregulation observed in the DksA-deficient strain, emphasizing the importance of the secondary channel of the RNA polymerase for regulation and fine-tuning of gene expression in E. coli.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center