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Mol Pharmacol. 2003 Nov;64(5):1259-69.

Cloning and Characterization of the Murine and Rat mrp1 Promoter Regions.

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Queen's University Cancer Research Institute, Botterell Hall Room A315C, Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada K7L 3N6.


The ATP-binding cassette transporter multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) confers resistance to a number of clinically important chemotherapeutic agents. The proximal promoter region of MRP1 is GC-rich and contains binding sites for members of the Sp1 family of trans-acting factors that seem to be important for basal expression. As an approach to searching for other elements that may contribute to expression, we have sequenced and functionally compared the promoters of the murine and rat mrp1 genes with that of the human gene. All three promoters are GC-rich, TATA-less, and CAAT-less. Conservation of sequence between rodent and human promoters is limited to a proximal region of 100 nucleotides containing binding sites for members of the Sp1 family and a putative activator protein-1 element. The 5'-untranslated region (UTR) of human MRP1 contains an insertion of approximately 160 nucleotides comprising a GCC-triplet repeat and a GC-rich tandem repeat that is absent from the rodent sequences. Transient transfection analyses demonstrated that the conserved GC-boxes of all three genes are the major determinants of basal activity. Based on electrophoretic mobility shift assays, each GC-box can be bound by Sp1 or Sp3. Unlike the rodent genes, the human MRP1 5'UTR also binds Sp1 but not Sp3, and the human promoter retains substantial activity even in the absence of the conserved GC-boxes. Finally, we show that the tumor suppressor protein p53 can repress the human and rodent promoters by a mechanism that is independent of the Sp1 elements.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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