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Nature. 2018 Mar 8;555(7695):197-203. doi: 10.1038/nature25778. Epub 2018 Feb 21.

The genomic history of southeastern Europe.

Mathieson I1, Alpaslan-Roodenberg S1, Posth C2,3, Szécsényi-Nagy A4, Rohland N1, Mallick S1,5, Olalde I1, Broomandkhoshbacht N1,5, Candilio F6, Cheronet O6,7, Fernandes D6,8, Ferry M1,5, Gamarra B6, Fortes GG9, Haak W2,10, Harney E1,5, Jones E11,12, Keating D6, Krause-Kyora B2, Kucukkalipci I3, Michel M1,5, Mittnik A2,3, Nägele K2, Novak M6,13, Oppenheimer J1,5, Patterson N14, Pfrengle S3, Sirak K6,15, Stewardson K1,5, Vai S16, Alexandrov S17, Alt KW18,19,20, Andreescu R21, Antonović D22, Ash A6, Atanassova N23, Bacvarov K17, Gusztáv MB4, Bocherens H24,25, Bolus M26, Boroneanţ A27, Boyadzhiev Y17, Budnik A28, Burmaz J29, Chohadzhiev S30, Conard NJ25,31, Cottiaux R32, Čuka M33, Cupillard C34,35, Drucker DG25, Elenski N36, Francken M37, Galabova B38, Ganetsovski G39, Gély B40, Hajdu T41, Handzhyiska V42, Harvati K25,37, Higham T43, Iliev S44, Janković I13,45, Karavanić I45,46, Kennett DJ47, Komšo D33, Kozak A48, Labuda D49, Lari M16, Lazar C21,50, Leppek M51, Leshtakov K42, Vetro DL52,53, Los D29, Lozanov I42, Malina M26, Martini F52,53, McSweeney K54, Meller H20, Menđušić M55, Mirea P56, Moiseyev V57, Petrova V42, Price TD58, Simalcsik A59, Sineo L60, Šlaus M61, Slavchev V62, Stanev P36, Starović A63, Szeniczey T41, Talamo S64, Teschler-Nicola M7,65, Thevenet C32, Valchev I42, Valentin F66, Vasilyev S67, Veljanovska F68, Venelinova S69, Veselovskaya E67, Viola B70,71, Virag C72, Zaninović J73, Zäuner S74, Stockhammer PW2,51, Catalano G60, Krauß R75, Caramelli D16, Zariņa G76, Gaydarska B77, Lillie M78, Nikitin AG79, Potekhina I48, Papathanasiou A80, Borić D81, Bonsall C54, Krause J2,3, Pinhasi R6,7, Reich D1,5,14.

Author information

1
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
2
Department of Archaeogenetics, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, 07745 Jena, Germany.
3
Institute for Archaeological Sciences, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany.
4
Laboratory of Archaeogenetics, Institute of Archaeology, Research Centre for the Humanities, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-1097 Budapest, Hungary.
5
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.
6
Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Belfield, Dublin 4, Ireland.
7
Department of Anthropology, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.
8
CIAS, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, 3000-456 Coimbra, Portugal.
9
Department of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, University of Ferrara, Ferrara 44100, Italy.
10
Australian Centre for Ancient DNA, School of Biological Sciences, The University of Adelaide, SA-5005 Adelaide, South Australia, Australia.
11
Smurfit Institute of Genetics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland.
12
Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK.
13
Institute for Anthropological Research, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
14
Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02142, USA.
15
Department of Anthropology, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322, USA.
16
Dipartimento di Biologia, Università di Firenze, 50122 Florence, Italy.
17
National Institute of Archaeology and Museum, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, BG-1000 Sofia, Bulgaria.
18
Danube Private University, A-3500 Krems, Austria.
19
Department of Biomedical Engineering and Integrative Prehistory and Archaeological Science, CH-4123 Basel-Allschwil, Switzerland.
20
State Office for Heritage Management and Archaeology Saxony-Anhalt and State Museum of Prehistory, 06114 Halle, Germany.
21
National History Museum of Romania, 030026, Bucharest, Romania.
22
Institute of Archaeology, Belgrade, Serbia.
23
Institute of Experimental Morphology, Pathology and Anthropology with Museum, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 1113 Sofia, Bulgaria.
24
Department of Geosciences, Biogeology, Universität Tübingen, 72074 Tübingen, Germany.
25
Senckenberg Centre for Human Evolution and Palaeoenvironment at the University of Tübingen, 72076 Tübingen, Germany.
26
ROCEEH Research Center, Heidelberg Academy of Sciences and Humanities, University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany.
27
Vasile Pârvan Institute of Archaeology, Romanian Academy, 010667 Bucharest, Romania.
28
Human Biology Department, Cardinal Stefan Wyszyński University, 01-938 Warsaw, Poland.
29
KADUCEJ d.o.o., 21000 Split, Croatia.
30
St. Cyril and Methodius University, 5000 Veliko Turnovo, Bulgaria.
31
Department of Early Prehistory and Quaternary Ecology, University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany.
32
INRAP/UMR 8215 Trajectoires, 92023 Nanterre, France.
33
Archaeological Museum of Istria, 52100 Pula, Croatia.
34
Service Régional de l'Archéologie de Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, 25043 Besançon Cedex, France.
35
Laboratoire Chronoenvironnement, UMR 6249 du CNRS, UFR des Sciences et Techniques, 25030 Besançon Cedex, France.
36
Regional Museum of History Veliko Tarnovo, 5000 Veliko Tarnovo, Bulgaria.
37
Institute for Archaeological Sciences, Paleoanthropology, University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany.
38
Laboratory for Human Bioarchaeology, 1202 Sofia, Bulgaria.
39
Regional Museum of History, 3000 Vratsa, Bulgaria.
40
DRAC Auvergne - Rhône Alpes, Ministère de la Culture, Lyon Cedex 01, France.
41
Eötvös Loránd University, Faculty of Science, Institute of Biology, Department of Biological Anthropology, H-1117 Budapest, Hungary.
42
Department of Archaeology, Sofia University St. Kliment Ohridski, 1504 Sofia, Bulgaria.
43
Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, University of Oxford, Dyson Perrins Building, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK.
44
Regional Museum of History, 6300 Haskovo, Bulgaria.
45
Department of Anthropology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming 82071, USA.
46
Department of Archaeology, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, University of Zagreb, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
47
Department of Anthropology and Institutes for Energy and the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802, USA.
48
Department of Bioarchaeology, Institute of Archaeology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, 04210 Kiev, Ukraine.
49
CHU Sainte-Justine Research Center, Pediatric Department, Université de Montréal, Montreal, Québec H3T 1C5, Canada.
50
Department of Ancient History, Archaeology and History of Art, Faculty of History, University of Bucharest, 50107 Bucharest, Romania.
51
Institute for Pre- and Protohistoric Archaeology and the Archaeology of the Roman Provinces, Ludwig-Maximilians-University, 80799 Munich, Germany.
52
Dipartimento SAGAS - Sezione di Archeologia e Antico Oriente, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 50122 Florence, Italy.
53
Museo e Istituto fiorentino di Preistoria, 50122 Florence, Italy.
54
School of History, Classics and Archaeology, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH8 9AG, UK.
55
Conservation Department in Šibenik, Ministry of Culture of the Republic of Croatia, 22000 Šibenik, Croatia.
56
Teleorman County Museum, 140033 Alexandria, Romania.
57
Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera) RAS, 199034 St. Petersburg, Russia.
58
Department of Anthropology, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.
59
Olga Necrasov Centre for Anthropological Research, Romanian Academy - Iaşi Branch, 700481 Iaşi, Romania.
60
Dipartimento di Scienze e tecnologie biologiche, chimiche e farmaceutiche, Lab. of Anthropology, Università degli studi di Palermo, 90133 Palermo, Italy.
61
Anthropological Center, Croatian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia.
62
Regional Historical Museum Varna, BG-9000 Varna, Bulgaria.
63
National Museum in Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia.
64
Department of Human Evolution, Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, 04103 Leipzig, Germany.
65
Department of Anthropology, Natural History Museum Vienna, 1010 Vienna, Austria.
66
CNRS/UMR 7041 ArScAn MAE, 92023 Nanterre, France.
67
Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, 119991, Russia.
68
Archaeological Museum of Macedonia, 1000 Skopje, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
69
Regional Museum of History, 9700 Shumen, Bulgaria.
70
Department of Anthropology, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 2S2, Canada.
71
Institute of Archaeology & Ethnography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia.
72
Satu Mare County Museum Archaeology Department, 440026 Satu Mare, Romania.
73
Municipal Museum Drniš, 22320 Drniš, Croatia.
74
anthropol - Anthropologieservice, 72379 Hechingen, Germany.
75
Institute for Prehistory, Early History and Medieval Archaeology, University of Tübingen, 72070 Tübingen, Germany.
76
Institute of Latvian History, University of Latvia, Rı¯ga 1050, Latvia.
77
Department of Archaeology, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE, UK.
78
School of Environmental Sciences, Geography, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX, UK.
79
Department of Biology, Grand Valley State University, Allendale, Michigan 49401, USA.
80
Ephorate of Paleoanthropology and Speleology, 11636 Athens, Greece.
81
The Italian Academy for Advanced Studies in America, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027, USA.

Abstract

Farming was first introduced to Europe in the mid-seventh millennium bc, and was associated with migrants from Anatolia who settled in the southeast before spreading throughout Europe. Here, to understand the dynamics of this process, we analysed genome-wide ancient DNA data from 225 individuals who lived in southeastern Europe and surrounding regions between 12000 and 500 bc. We document a west-east cline of ancestry in indigenous hunter-gatherers and, in eastern Europe, the early stages in the formation of Bronze Age steppe ancestry. We show that the first farmers of northern and western Europe dispersed through southeastern Europe with limited hunter-gatherer admixture, but that some early groups in the southeast mixed extensively with hunter-gatherers without the sex-biased admixture that prevailed later in the north and west. We also show that southeastern Europe continued to be a nexus between east and west after the arrival of farmers, with intermittent genetic contact with steppe populations occurring up to 2,000 years earlier than the migrations from the steppe that ultimately replaced much of the population of northern Europe.

PMID:
29466330
PMCID:
PMC6091220
[Available on 2018-08-21]
DOI:
10.1038/nature25778
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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