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Science. 1998 Mar 6;279(5356):1514-7.

Origin of mountains on Io by thrust faulting and large-scale mass movements

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P. M. Schenk, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, TX 77058, USA. M. H. Bulmer, Center for Earth and Planetary Science, National Air and Space Museum, Washington, DC 20560, USA.


Voyager stereoimages of Euboea Montes, Io, indicate that this mountain formed when a large crustal block was uplifted 10.5 kilometers and tilted by approximately 6 degrees. Uplift triggered a massive slope failure on the northwest flank, forming one of the largest debris aprons in the solar system. This slope failure probably involved relatively unconsolidated layers totaling approximately 2 kilometers in thickness, overlying a rigid crust (or lithosphere) at least 11 kilometers thick. Mountain formation on Io may involve localized deep-rooted thrust faulting and block rotation, due to compression at depth induced during vertical recycling of Io's crust.

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