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J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011 Jul;338(1):205-13. doi: 10.1124/jpet.111.180794. Epub 2011 Mar 29.

Cinnamyl-3,4-dihydroxy-α-cyanocinnamate is a potent inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmaceutical/Medicinal Chemistry, Institute of Pharmacy, University of Jena, Jena, Germany. carlo.pergola@uni-jena.de

Abstract

Lipoxygenases (LOs) are iron-containing enzymes that catalyze the conversion of arachidonic acid into hydroperoxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HPETEs) and other bioactive lipid mediators. In mammals, 5-LO, 15-LO, and 12-LO enzymes seem to have distinct roles in pathophysiological contexts, which have emphasized the need for selective inhibitors. Cinnamyl-3,4-dihydroxy-α-cyanocinnamate (CDC) has been proposed as potent and selective inhibitor of platelet-type 12-LO (p12-LO). Here, we re-evaluated the selectivity profile of CDC on LOs, and we show that CDC is a potent and direct inhibitor of 5-LO. CDC reduced 5-LO activity in cell-free assays (purified human recombinant enzyme or leukocyte homogenates), with IC(50) values in the low nanomolar range (9-25 nM) and a selectivity index of approximately 35 and 15 over p12-LO and 15-LO1, respectively. Likewise, CDC inhibited 5-LO product formation in intact human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes (IC(50) = 0.45-0.8 μM). A lower potency was observed for 15-LO1, whereas p12-LO activity in platelets was hardly affected. In human whole blood, CDC efficiently reduced the formation of 5-LO products, and similar effects were observed for 12(S)-H(P)ETE and 15(S)-H(P)ETE. Finally, CDC (3.5 and 7 mg/kg i.p.) was effective in vivo in the platelet-activating factor-induced shock in mice and reduced formation of the 5-LO product leukotriene B(4) in the rat carrageenan-induced pleurisy after a single oral dose of 10 mg/kg. Together, our data demonstrate that CDC is a potent inhibitor of 5-LO with efficacy in vivo and encourage further development of CDC as the lead compound.

PMID:
21447614
DOI:
10.1124/jpet.111.180794
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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