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Sci Adv. 2017 Dec 8;3(12):eaao5496. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aao5496. eCollection 2017 Dec.

One-step volumetric additive manufacturing of complex polymer structures.

Author information

1
Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550, USA.
2
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.
3
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627, USA.
4
Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
5
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Berkeley, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
6
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Abstract

Two limitations of additive manufacturing methods that arise from layer-based fabrication are slow speed and geometric constraints (which include poor surface quality). Both limitations are overcome in the work reported here, introducing a new volumetric additive fabrication paradigm that produces photopolymer structures with complex nonperiodic three-dimensional geometries on a time scale of seconds. We implement this approach using holographic patterning of light fields, demonstrate the fabrication of a variety of structures, and study the properties of the light patterns and photosensitive resins required for this fabrication approach. The results indicate that low-absorbing resins containing ~0.1% photoinitiator, illuminated at modest powers (~10 to 100 mW), may be successfully used to build full structures in ~1 to 10 s.

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