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Diabetes. 2016 Aug;65(8):2440-7. doi: 10.2337/db16-0107. Epub 2016 Apr 5.

Quantification of the Contribution of GLP-1 to Mediating Insulinotropic Effects of DPP-4 Inhibition With Vildagliptin in Healthy Subjects and Patients With Type 2 Diabetes Using Exendin [9-39] as a GLP-1 Receptor Antagonist.

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Diabeteszentrum Bad Lauterberg, Bad Lauterberg im Harz, Germany Division of Diabetology, Medical Department I, St. Josef-Hospital (Ruhr University Bochum), Bochum, Germany
PAREXEL, Berlin, Germany.
Diabeteszentrum Bad Lauterberg, Bad Lauterberg im Harz, Germany.
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Panum Institute, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
Novartis Institute for BioMedical Research, Cambridge, MA.
Novartis Pharmaceuticals, East Hanover, NJ.


We quantified the contribution of GLP-1 as a mediator of the therapeutic effects of dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibition (vildagliptin) by using the GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin [9-39] in patients with type 2 diabetes and in healthy subjects. Thirty-two patients with type 2 diabetes and 29 age- and weight-matched healthy control subjects were treated in randomized order with 100 mg once daily vildagliptin or placebo for 10 days. Meal tests were performed (days 9 and 10) without and with a high-dose intravenous infusion of exendin [9-39]. The main end point was the ratio of the areas under the curve (AUCs) of integrated insulin secretion rates (total AUCISR) and glucose (total AUCglucose) over 4 h after the meal. Vildagliptin treatment more than doubled responses of intact GLP-1 and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide and lowered glucose responses without changing AUCISR/AUCglucose in healthy subjects. Vildagliptin significantly increased this ratio by 10.5% in patients with type 2 diabetes, and exendin [9-39] reduced it (both P < 0.0001). The percentage reduction in the AUCISR/AUCglucose ratio achieved with exendin [9-39] was significantly smaller after vildagliptin treatment than after placebo treatment (P = 0.026) and was equivalent to 47 ± 5% of the increments due to vildagliptin. Thus, other mediators appear to contribute significantly to the therapeutic effects of DPP-4 inhibition.


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