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Phys Rev Lett. 2016 Nov 4;117(19):192001. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

Testing Hadronic Interactions at Ultrahigh Energies with Air Showers Measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory.

Aab A1, Abreu P2, Aglietta M3,4, Ahn EJ5, Al Samarai I6, Albuquerque IF7, Allekotte I8, Allen JD9, Allison P10, Almela A11,12, Alvarez Castillo J13, Alvarez-Muñiz J14, Ambrosio M15, Anastasi GA16, Anchordoqui L17, Andrada B11, Andringa S2, Aramo C15, Arqueros F18, Arsene N19, Asorey H8,20, Assis P2, Aublin J6, Avila G21,22, Badescu AM23, Baus C24, Beatty JJ10, Becker KH25, Bellido JA26, Berat C27, Bertaina ME4,28, Bertou X8, Biermann PL29, Billoir P6, Biteau J30, Blaess SG26, Blanco A2, Blazek J31, Bleve C32,33, Blümer H24,34, Boháčová M31, Boncioli D35,36, Bonifazi C36, Borodai N37, Botti AM11,34, Brack J38, Brancus I39, Bretz T40, Bridgeman A34, Briechle FL40, Buchholz P1, Bueno A41, Buitink S42, Buscemi M43,44, Caballero-Mora KS45, Caccianiga B46, Caccianiga L6, Cancio A11,12, Canfora F42, Caramete L47, Caruso R43,44, Castellina A3,4, Cataldi G33, Cazon L2, Cester R4,28, Chavez AG48, Chiavassa A4,28, Chinellato JA49, Chirinos Diaz JC50, Chudoba J31, Clay RW26, Colalillo R15,51, Coleman A52, Collica L4, Coluccia MR32,33, Conceição R2, Contreras F21,22, Cooper MJ26, Coutu S52, Covault CE53, Cronin J54, Dallier R55,56, D'Amico S33,57, Daniel B49, Dasso S58,59, Daumiller K34, Dawson BR26, de Almeida RM60, de Jong SJ42,61, De Mauro G42, de Mello Neto JR36, De Mitri I32,33, de Oliveira J60, de Souza V62, Debatin J34, Del Peral L63, Deligny O30, Dhital N50, Di Giulio C64,65, Di Matteo A16,66, Díaz Castro ML49, Diogo F2, Dobrigkeit C49, D'Olivo JC13, Dorofeev A38, Dos Anjos RC67, Dova MT68, Dundovic A69, Ebr J31, Engel R34, Erdmann M40, Erfani M1, Escobar CO5,49, Espadanal J2, Etchegoyen A11,12, Falcke H42,61,70, Fang K54, Farrar GR9, Fauth AC49, Fazzini N5, Ferguson AP53, Fick B50, Figueira JM11, Filevich A11, Filipčič A71,72, Fratu O23, Freire MM73, Fujii T54, Fuster A11,12, Gallo F11, García B74, Garcia-Pinto D18, Gate F55, Gemmeke H75, Gherghel-Lascu A39, Ghia PL6, Giaccari U36, Giammarchi M46, Giller M76, Głas D76, Glaser C40, Glass H5, Golup G8, Gómez Berisso M8, Gómez Vitale PF21,22, González N11,34, Gookin B38, Gordon J10, Gorgi A3,4, Gorham P77, Gouffon P7, Griffith N10, Grillo AF35, Grubb TD26, Guarino F15,51, Guedes GP78, Hampel MR11, Hansen P68, Harari D8, Harrison TA26, Harton JL38, Hasankiadeh Q34, Haungs A34, Hebbeker T40, Heck D34, Heimann P1, Herve AE24, Hill GC26, Hojvat C5, Hollon N54, Holt E11,34, Homola P37, Hörandel JR42,61, Horvath P79, Hrabovský M79, Huege T34, Hulsman J11,34, Insolia A43,44, Isar PG47, Jandt I25, Jansen S42,61, Jarne C68, Johnsen JA80, Josebachuili M11, Kääpä A25, Kambeitz O24, Kampert KH25, Kasper P5, Katkov I24, Keilhauer B34, Kemp E49, Kieckhafer RM50, Klages HO34, Kleifges M75, Kleinfeller J21, Krause R40, Krohm N25, Kuempel D40, Kukec Mezek G72, Kunka N75, Kuotb Awad A34, LaHurd D53, Latronico L4, Lauscher M40, Lautridou P55, Lebrun P5, Legumina R76, Leigui de Oliveira MA81, Letessier-Selvon A6, Lhenry-Yvon I30, Link K24, Lopes L2, López R82, López Casado A14, Lucero A11,12, Malacari M26, Mallamaci M46,83, Mandat D31, Mantsch P5, Mariazzi AG68, Marin V55, Mariş IC41, Marsella G32,33, Martello D32,33, Martinez H84, Martínez Bravo O82, Masías Meza JJ59, Mathes HJ34, Mathys S25, Matthews J85, Matthews JA86, Matthiae G64,65, Maurizio D87, Mayotte E80, Mazur PO5, Medina C80, Medina-Tanco G13, Mello VB36, Melo D11, Menshikov A75, Messina S88, Micheletti MI73, Middendorf L40, Minaya IA18, Miramonti L46,83, Mitrica B39, Molina-Bueno L41, Mollerach S8, Montanet F27, Morello C3,4, Mostafá M52, Moura CA81, Müller G40, Muller MA49,89, Müller S11,34, Naranjo I8, Navas S41, Necesal P31, Nellen L13, Nelles A42,61, Neuser J25, Nguyen PH26, Niculescu-Oglinzanu M39, Niechciol M1, Niemietz L25, Niggemann T40, Nitz D50, Nosek D90, Novotny V90, Nožka H79, Núñez LA20, Ochilo L1, Oikonomou F52, Olinto A54, Pakk Selmi-Dei D49, Palatka M31, Pallotta J91, Papenbreer P25, Parente G14, Parra A82, Paul T17,92, Pech M31, Pedreira F14, Pękala J37, Pelayo R93, Peña-Rodriguez J20, Pepe IM94, Pereira LA49, Perrone L32,33, Petermann E95, Peters C40, Petrera S16,66, Phuntsok J52, Piegaia R59, Pierog T34, Pieroni P59, Pimenta M2, Pirronello V43,44, Platino M11, Plum M40, Porowski C37, Prado RR62, Privitera P54, Prouza M31, Quel EJ91, Querchfeld S25, Quinn S53, Rautenberg J25, Ravel O55, Ravignani D11, Revenu B55, Ridky J31, Risse M1, Ristori P91, Rizi V16,66, Rodrigues de Carvalho W14, Rodriguez Rojo J21, Rodríguez-Frías MD63, Rogozin D34, Rosado J18, Roth M34, Roulet E8, Rovero AC58, Saffi SJ26, Saftoiu A39, Salazar H82, Saleh A72, Salesa Greus F52, Salina G65, Sanabria Gomez JD20, Sánchez F11, Sanchez-Lucas P41, Santos EM7, Santos E49, Sarazin F80, Sarkar B25, Sarmento R2, Sarmiento-Cano C20, Sato R21, Scarso C21, Schauer M25, Scherini V32,33, Schieler H34, Schmidt D11,34, Scholten O88, Schoorlemmer H77, Schovánek P31, Schröder FG34, Schulz A34, Schulz J42, Schumacher J40, Sciutto SJ68, Segreto A44,96, Settimo M6, Shadkam A85, Shellard RC87, Sigl G69, Sima O19, Śmiałkowski A76, Šmída R34, Snow GR95, Sommers P52, Sonntag S1, Sorokin J26, Squartini R21, Stanca D39, Stanič S72, Stapleton J10, Stasielak J37, Strafella F32,33, Stutz A27, Suarez F11,12, Suarez Durán M20, Sudholz T26, Suomijärvi T30, Supanitsky AD58, Sutherland MS10, Swain J92, Szadkowski Z76, Taborda OA8, Tapia A11, Tepe A1, Theodoro VM49, Timmermans C42,61, Todero Peixoto CJ97, Tomankova L34, Tomé B2, Tonachini A4,28, Torralba Elipe G14, Torres Machado D36, Travnicek P31, Trini M72, Ulrich R34, Unger M9,34, Urban M40, Valbuena-Delgado A20, Valdés Galicia JF13, Valiño I14, Valore L15,51, van Aar G42, van Bodegom P26, van den Berg AM88, van Vliet A42, Varela E82, Vargas Cárdenas B13, Varner G77, Vázquez JR18, Vázquez RA14, Veberič D34, Verzi V65, Vicha J31, Videla M11, Villaseñor L48, Vorobiov S72, Wahlberg H68, Wainberg O11,12, Walz D40, Watson AA98, Weber M75, Weindl A34, Wiencke L80, Wilczyński H37, Winchen T25, Wittkowski D25, Wundheiler B11, Wykes S42, Yang L72, Yapici T50, Yelos D11,12, Zas E14, Zavrtanik D71,72, Zavrtanik M71,72, Zepeda A84, Zimmermann B75, Ziolkowski M1, Zong Z30, Zuccarello F43,44; Pierre Auger Collaboration.

Author information

1
Universität Siegen, Fachbereich 7 Physik-Experimentelle Teilchenphysik, Germany.
2
Laboratório de Instrumentação e Física Experimental de Partículas-LIP and Instituto Superior Técnico-IST, Universidade de Lisboa-UL, Portugal.
3
Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino (INAF), Torino, Italy.
4
INFN, Sezione di Torino, Italy.
5
Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, Batavia, Illinois, USA.
6
Laboratoire de Physique Nucléaire et de Hautes Energies (LPNHE), Universités Paris 6 et Paris 7, CNRS-IN2P3, France.
7
Universidade de São Paulo, Inst. de Física, São Paulo, Brazil.
8
Centro Atómico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), Argentina.
9
New York University, New York, New York, USA.
10
Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA.
11
Instituto de Tecnologías en Detección y Astropartículas (CNEA, CONICET, UNSAM), Centro Atómico Constituyentes, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Argentina.
12
Universidad Tecnológica Nacional-Facultad Regional Buenos Aires, Argentina.
13
Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Mexico.
14
Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Spain.
15
INFN, Sezione di Napoli, Italy.
16
INFN, Sezione di L'Aquila, Italy.
17
Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lehman College, City University of New York, Bronx, New York, USA.
18
Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
19
University of Bucharest, Physics Department, Romania.
20
Universidad Industrial de Santander, Colombia.
21
Observatorio Pierre Auger, Argentina.
22
Observatorio Pierre Auger and Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, Argentina.
23
University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania.
24
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut für Experimentelle Kernphysik (IEKP), Germany.
25
Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Department of Physics, Germany, Germany.
26
University of Adelaide, Australia.
27
Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie (LPSC), Université Grenoble-Alpes, CNRS/IN2P3, France.
28
Università Torino, Dipartimento di Fisica, Italy.
29
Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn, Germany.
30
Institut de Physique Nucléaire d'Orsay (IPNO), Université Paris 11, CNRS-IN2P3, France.
31
Institute of Physics (FZU) of the Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Czech Republic.
32
Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica "E. De Giorgi", Italy.
33
INFN, Sezione di Lecce, Italy.
34
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut für Kernphysik (IKP), Germany.
35
INFN Laboratori del Gran Sasso, Italy.
36
Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Instituto de Física, Brazil.
37
Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Poland.
38
Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
39
"Horia Hulubei" National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Romania.
40
RWTH Aachen University, III. Physikalisches Institut A, Germany.
41
Universidad de Granada and C.A.F.P.E., Spain.
42
Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP), Radboud Universiteit, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
43
Università di Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Italy.
44
INFN, Sezione di Catania, Italy.
45
Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, Mexico.
46
INFN, Sezione di Milano, Italy.
47
Institute of Space Science, Romania.
48
Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Mexico.
49
Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Brazil.
50
Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan, USA.
51
Università di Napoli "Federico II", Dipartimento di Fisica, Italy.
52
Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania, USA.
53
Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
54
University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, USA.
55
SUBATECH, École des Mines de Nantes, CNRS-IN2P3, Université de Nantes, France.
56
Station de Radioastronomie de Nançay, France.
57
Università del Salento, Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Italy.
58
Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Argentina.
59
Departamento de Física and Departamento de Ciencias de la Atmósfera y los Océanos, FCEyN, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Argentina.
60
Universidade Federal Fluminense, Brazil.
61
Nationaal Instituut voor Kernfysica en Hoge Energie Fysica (NIKHEF), Netherlands.
62
Universidade de São Paulo, Inst. de Física de São Carlos, São Carlos, Brazil.
63
Universidad de Alcalá de Henares, Spain.
64
Università di Roma "Tor Vergata", Dipartimento di Fisica, Italy.
65
INFN, Sezione di Roma "Tor Vergata", Italy.
66
Università dell'Aquila, Dipartimento di Chimica e Fisica, Italy.
67
Universidade Federal do Paraná, Setor Palotina, Brazil.
68
IFLP, Universidad Nacional de La Plata and CONICET, Argentina.
69
Universität Hamburg, II. Institut für Theoretische Physik, Germany.
70
Stichting Astronomisch Onderzoek in Nederland (ASTRON), Dwingeloo, Netherlands.
71
Experimental Particle Physics Department, J. Stefan Institute, Slovenia.
72
Laboratory for Astroparticle Physics, University of Nova Gorica, Slovenia.
73
Instituto de Física de Rosario (IFIR)-CONICET/U.N.R. and Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas U.N.R., Argentina.
74
Instituto de Tecnologías en Detección y Astropartículas (CNEA, CONICET, UNSAM) and Universidad Tecnológica Nacional-Facultad Regional Mendoza (CONICET/CNEA), Argentina.
75
Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institut für Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik (IPE), Germany.
76
University of Łódź, Poland.
77
University of Hawaii, Honolulu, Hawaii, USA.
78
Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana (UEFS), Brazil.
79
Palacky University, RCPTM, Czech Republic.
80
Colorado School of Mines, Golden, Colorado, USA.
81
Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Brazil.
82
Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (BUAP), Mexico.
83
Università di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Italy.
84
Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN (CINVESTAV), Mexico.
85
Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, USA.
86
University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA.
87
Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Brazil.
88
KVI-Center for Advanced Radiation Technology, University of Groningen, Netherlands.
89
Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Brazil.
90
University Prague, Institute of Particle and Nuclear Physics, Czech Republic.
91
Centro de Investigaciones en Láseres y Aplicaciones, CITEDEF and CONICET, Argentina.
92
Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.
93
Unidad Profesional Interdisciplinaria en Ingeniería y Tecnologías Avanzadas del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (UPIITA-IPN), Mexico.
94
Universidade Federal da Bahia, Brazil.
95
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska, USA.
96
INAF-Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica di Palermo, Italy.
97
Universidade de São Paulo, Escola de Engenharia de Lorena, Brazil.
98
School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

Abstract

Ultrahigh energy cosmic ray air showers probe particle physics at energies beyond the reach of accelerators. Here we introduce a new method to test hadronic interaction models without relying on the absolute energy calibration, and apply it to events with primary energy 6-16 EeV (E_{CM}=110-170  TeV), whose longitudinal development and lateral distribution were simultaneously measured by the Pierre Auger Observatory. The average hadronic shower is 1.33±0.16 (1.61±0.21) times larger than predicted using the leading LHC-tuned models EPOS-LHC (QGSJetII-04), with a corresponding excess of muons.

PMID:
27858429
DOI:
10.1103/PhysRevLett.117.192001
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