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Int J Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Jan 1;12(1):e10749. doi: 10.5812/ijem.10749. eCollection 2014 Jan.

Hypogonadism and metabolic syndrome in nigerian male patients with both type 2 diabetes and hypertension.

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Department of Chemical Pathology, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Ladoke University of Technology, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria.



The association between testosterone level and the components of metabolic syndrome remains controversial. Relevant studies from Sub-Saharan Africa are few and incohesive.


The current study was designed to investigate the level of testosterone in patients with both diabetes and hypertension and the association of low testosterone with metabolic syndrome in these patients.


In this prospective case-control study, 83 male subjects (49 newly diagnosed men with both diabetes and hypertension and 34 apparently healthy controls) were recruited from Ladoke Akintola University of Technology Teaching Hospital, Osogbo, Nigeria and University College Hospital Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria. Demographic, anthropometric and sexual characteristics were obtained using structured questionnaires and standard methods. Blood plasma glucose (BPG), total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) were measured by conventional methods. Testosterone (T) was analyzed by enzyme immunoassay. Data obtained were statically analyzed with the SPSS 15.0 software, and results were expressed as mean ± SEM.


This study showed significantly lowered concentrations of testosterone (3.11 nm/L ± 0.34) and HDL (0.39 mmol/L ± 0.02), in addition to the expected increased concentrations of fasting plasma glucose (9.61 mmol/L ± 0.37) in the subjects compared to controls (P < 0.05). An inverse significant correlation was observed between the serum testosterone concentration and metabolic syndrome (BMI, r = -0.477; waist/Hip ratio, r = -0.376 and dyslipidemia, r = -0.364, P < 0.05). Also, the testosterone level decreased with increase in central obesity (P < 0.05).


This study established a strong association between low serum testosterone and metabolic syndrome in subjects with both type 2 diabetes and hypertension. It may therefore be advisable to include routine measurement of the testosterone level in the management of patients presented with both diabetes and hypertension. Furthermore, these patients may benefit from testosterone replacement therapy.


Cholesterol; Diabetes; Dyslipidemia; Hypertension; Metabolic Syndrome; Testosterone

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