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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2018 Feb 20;115(8):1837-1842. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1714977115. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Phylogenetic classification of the world's tropical forests.

Slik JWF1, Franklin J2, Arroyo-Rodríguez V3, Field R4, Aguilar S5, Aguirre N6, Ahumada J7, Aiba SI8, Alves LF9, K A10, Avella A11, Mora F3, Aymard C GA12,13, Báez S14, Balvanera P3, Bastian ML15, Bastin JF16, Bellingham PJ17, van den Berg E18, da Conceição Bispo P19, Boeckx P20, Boehning-Gaese K21,22, Bongers F23, Boyle B24, Brambach F25, Brearley FQ26, Brown S27, Chai SL28, Chazdon RL29, Chen S30, Chhang P31, Chuyong G32, Ewango C33, Coronado IM34, Cristóbal-Azkarate J35, Culmsee H36, Damas K37, Dattaraja HS38, Davidar P39, DeWalt SJ40, Din H41, Drake DR42, Duque A43, Durigan G44, Eichhorn K45, Eler ES46, Enoki T47, Ensslin A48, Fandohan AB49, Farwig N50, Feeley KJ51, Fischer M48, Forshed O52, Garcia QS53, Garkoti SC54, Gillespie TW55, Gillet JF56, Gonmadje C57,58, Granzow-de la Cerda I59, Griffith DM60, Grogan J61, Hakeem KR62, Harris DJ63, Harrison RD64, Hector A65, Hemp A66, Homeier J67, Hussain MS68, Ibarra-Manríquez G3, Hanum IF69, Imai N70, Jansen PA5,23, Joly CA71, Joseph S10,72, Kartawinata K73,74, Kearsley E75, Kelly DL76, Kessler M77, Killeen TJ78, Kooyman RM79,80, Laumonier Y10, Laurance SG81, Laurance WF81, Lawes MJ82, Letcher SG83, Lindsell J84, Lovett J85,86, Lozada J87, Lu X88, Lykke AM89, Mahmud KB90, Mahayani NPD91, Mansor A92,93, Marshall AR94,95,96, Martin EH97, Calderado Leal Matos D98, Meave JA99, Melo FPL100, Mendoza ZHA101, Metali F41, Medjibe VP102, Metzger JP103, Metzker T53,104, Mohandass D39,105, Munguía-Rosas MA106, Muñoz R99, Nurtjahy E107, de Oliveira EL108, Onrizal109, Parolin P110,111, Parren M112, Parthasarathy N39, Paudel E113, Perez R5, Pérez-García EA99, Pommer U21, Poorter L23, Qie L111, Piedade MTF46, Pinto JRR114, Poulsen AD63, Poulsen JR115, Powers JS116, Prasad RC117, Puyravaud JP118, Rangel O11, Reitsma J119, Rocha DSB120, Rolim S121, Rovero F122, Rozak A123, Ruokolainen K124, Rutishauser E5, Rutten G48, Mohd Said MN125, Saiter FZ126, Saner P127, Santos B128, Dos Santos JR129, Sarker SK130, Schmitt CB131,132, Schoengart J46, Schulze M133, Sheil D134, Sist P135, Souza AF136, Spironello WR46, Sposito T53,104, Steinmetz R137, Stevart T138, Suganuma MS139, Sukri R41, Sultana A68, Sukumar R38, Sunderland T10, Supriyadi91, Suresh HS38, Suzuki E8, Tabarelli M140, Tang J141, Tanner EVJ142, Targhetta N46, Theilade I143, Thomas D144, Timberlake J86, de Morisson Valeriano M129, van Valkenburg J145, Van Do T146, Van Sam H147, Vandermeer JH148, Verbeeck H75, Vetaas OR149, Adekunle V150, Vieira SA71, Webb CO151, Webb EL152, Whitfeld T153, Wich S154,155, Williams J156, Wiser S17, Wittmann F157, Yang X158, Adou Yao CY159, Yap SL160, Zahawi RA161, Zakaria R92, Zang R88.

Author information

1
Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam; ferryslik@hotmail.com janet.franklin@ucr.edu.
2
Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, University of California, Riverside, CA 92521; ferryslik@hotmail.com janet.franklin@ucr.edu.
3
Instituto de Investigaciones en Ecosistemas y Sustentabilidad, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, 58190 Morelia, Michoacán, Mexico.
4
School of Geography, University of Nottingham, Nottingham NG7 2RD, United Kingdom.
5
Center for Tropical Forest Science, Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Ancon, Panama.
6
Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Research Program, Universidad Nacional de Loja, Loja EC110103, Ecuador.
7
The Moore Center for Science, Conservation International, Arlington, VA 22202.
8
Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-0065, Japan.
9
Center for Tropical Research, Institute of the Environment and Sustainability, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095.
10
Forest and Environment Program, Center for International Forestry Research (CIFOR), Bogor 16115, Indonesia.
11
Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Bogotá 111321, Colombia.
12
UNELLEZ-Guanare, Programa de Ciencias del Agro y el Mar, Herbario Universitario (PORT), Mesa de Cavacas, Estado Portuguesa 3350, Venezuela.
13
Compensation International Progress S.A.-Ciprogress Greenlife, Bogotá D.C., Colombia.
14
Departamento de Biología, Escuela Politécnica Nacional del Ecuador, Ladrón de Guevara E11-253, Quito, Ecuador.
15
Smithsonian's National Zoo, Animal Care Sciences, Primates, Washington, DC 20013-7012.
16
Institute of Integrative Biology, Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH Zurich, 8092 Zurich, Switzerland.
17
Landcare Research Manaaki Whenua, Lincoln 7640, New Zealand.
18
Departamento de Biologia, Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras-MG, 37200-000, Brazil.
19
Centre for Landscape and Climate Research, Department of Geography, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH, United Kingdom.
20
Isotope Bioscience Laboratory (ISOFYS), Department of Green Chemistry and Technology, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
21
Senckenberg Biodiversity and Climate Research Centre (BiK-F), 60325 Frankfurt (Main), Germany.
22
Institute for Ecology, Evolution and Diversity, Goethe University Frankfurt, 60439 Frankfurt (Main), Germany.
23
Forest Ecology and Forest Management Group, Wageningen University & Research, 6700 AA Wageningen, The Netherlands.
24
Hardner & Gullison Associates, Victoria, BC V8P 1A9, Canada.
25
Ecology and Ecosystem Research, Georg August University Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen, Germany.
26
School of Science and the Environment, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD, United Kingdom.
27
Environment Group, Winrock International, St Dogmaels SA43 3 DT, United Kingdom.
28
Ecosystem Management Unit, InnoTech Alberta, Vegreville, AB T9C 1T4, Canada.
29
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269-3043.
30
College of Environment and Ecology, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China.
31
Forest and Wildlife Research Institute, 12101 Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
32
Department of Botany and Plant Physiology, University of Buea, POB 63 Buea, Cameroon.
33
Wildlife Conservation Society-Program DR Congo, B.P. 14537 Brazzaville, DR Congo.
34
Departamento de Biología, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua, Herbario HULE, León 505, Nicaragua.
35
Division of Biological Anthropology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3QG, United Kingdom.
36
DBU Natural Heritage, German Federal Foundation for the Environment, 49090 Osnabrück, Germany.
37
PNG Forest Research Institute, Lae 411, Morobe Province, Papua New Guinea.
38
Centre for Ecological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012, India.
39
Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences, Pondicherry University, Puducherry 605014, India.
40
Department of Biological Sciences, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634.
41
Environmental and Life Sciences, Faculty of Science, Universiti Brunei Darussalam, Gadong BE1410, Brunei Darussalam.
42
Botany Department, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822.
43
Departamento de Ciencias Forestales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Medellín, Colombia.
44
Laboratório de Ecologia e Hidrologia Florestal, Floresta Estadual de Assis, Instituto Florestal de SP, 19802-970 Assis, SP, Brazil.
45
Eichhorn Ecologie, 3702 BK Zeist, The Netherlands.
46
Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia-INPA, Araújo, CEP 69067-375 Manaus AM, Brazil.
47
Kasuya Research Forest, Kyushu University, Sasaguri, Fukuoka 811-2415, Japan.
48
Institute of Plant Sciences, University of Bern, 3013 Bern, Switzerland.
49
Ecole de Foresterie et Ingénierie du Bois, Université Nationale d'Agriculture, BP 45, Kétou, Benin.
50
Conservation Ecology, Faculty of Biology, Philipps-Universität Marburg, 35032 Marburg, Germany.
51
Department of Biology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL 33146.
52
WWF-Sweden/Världsnaturfonden WWF, Ulriksdals Slott, S-170 81 Solna, Sweden.
53
Departamento de Botânica, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
54
School of Environmental Sciences, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi 110067, India.
55
Department of Geography, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095.
56
TERRA Teaching and Research Center, Central African Forests, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, University of Liège, B-5030 Gembloux, Belgium.
57
Department of Plant Biology, Faculty of Sciences, University of Yaounde I, Yaounde, BP 812, Cameroon.
58
National Herbarium, Yaoundé, BP 20818, Cameroon.
59
CREAF, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès 08193, Spain.
60
Universidad Técnica Particular de Loja, Loja 1101608, Ecuador.
61
Mount Holyoke College Botanic Garden, South Hadley, MA 01075.
62
Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.
63
Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH3 5LR, United Kingdom.
64
World Agroforestry Centre, East and Southern Africa Region, Woodlands, Lusaka, Zambia.
65
Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RB, United Kingdom.
66
Department of Plant Systematics, University of Bayreuth, 95440 Bayreuth, Germany.
67
Plant Ecology, Albrecht von Haller Institute of Plant Sciences, Georg August University Göttingen, 37073 Göttingen, Germany.
68
Biodiversity Parks Programme, Centre for Environmental Management of Degraded Ecosystems, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007, India.
69
Faculty of Forestry, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang-43400, Selangor, Malaysia.
70
Department of Forest Science, Tokyo University of Agriculture, Tokyo 156-8502, Japan.
71
UNICAMP, Cidade Universitária Zeferino Vaz-Barão Geraldo, Campinas, Sao Paulo 13083-970, Brazil.
72
Geographic Information Systems and Remote Sensing Department, Kerala Forest Research Institute, Peechi, Kerala 680653, India.
73
Integrative Research Center, The Field Museum, Chicago, IL 60605.
74
Herbarium Bogoriense, Research Center for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Cibinong 16911, Indonesia.
75
Computational and Applied Vegetation Ecology (CAVElab), Department of Environment, Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
76
Trinity Centre for Biodiversity Research, Trinity College, The University of Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland.
77
Department of Systematic and Evolutionary Botany, University of Zurich, 8008 Zurich, Switzerland.
78
Agteca-Amazonica, Santa Cruz, Bolivia.
79
Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109, Australia.
80
National Herbarium of New South Wales, Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust, Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia.
81
Centre for Tropical Environmental and Sustainability Science and College of Science and Engineering, James Cook University, Cairns, QLD 4878, Australia.
82
School of Life Sciences, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Scottsville 3209, South Africa.
83
Department of Plant Biology, College of the Atlantic, Bar Harbor, ME 04609.
84
The RSPB Centre for Conservation Science, Sandy, Bedfordshire SG19 2DL, United Kingdom.
85
School of Geography, University of Leeds, Leeds LS2 9JT, United Kingdom.
86
Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, Richmond, Surrey TW9 3AB, United Kingdom.
87
Facultad de Ciencias Forestales y Ambientales, Universidad de Los Andes, Merida S101-A, Venezuela.
88
Key Laboratory of Forest Ecology and Environment of State Forestry Administration, Institute of Forest Ecology, Environment and Protection, Chinese Academy of Forestry, Beijing 100091, China.
89
Department of Bioscience, Aarhus University, 8600 Silkeborg, Denmark.
90
Faculty of Bioresources and Food Sciences, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, 20300, Besut Campus, Terengganu, Malaysia.
91
Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia.
92
School of Biological Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia.
93
Centre for Marine and Coastal Studies, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang, Malaysia.
94
CIRCLE, University of York, York YO10 5NG, United Kingdom.
95
Flamingo Land, North Yorkshire YO17 6UX, United Kingdom.
96
Tropical Forests and People Research Centre, University of the Sunshine Coast, QLD 4556, Australia.
97
College of African Wildlife Management, Department of Wildlife Management, Moshi, Tanzania.
98
Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém PA, 66040-170, Brazil.
99
Departamento de Ecología y Recursos Naturales, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Ciudad de México, C.P. 04510, Mexico.
100
Center for Biosciences, Federal University of Pernambuco, Cidade Universitária, Recife PE, 50670-901, Brazil.
101
Herbario Loja, Universidad Nacional de Loja, Loja EC110103, Ecuador.
102
Commission des Forêts d'Afrique Centrale (COMIFAC), BP 20818 Yaoundé, Cameroon.
103
Department of Ecology, Institute of Bioscience, University of São Paulo, 05508-900 São Paulo, SP, Brazil.
104
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia, Conservação e Manejo da Vida Silvestre (ECMVS), IBAM-Instituto Bem Ambiental, Belo Horizonte-Minas Gerais, 30360-310, Brazil.
105
Root and Soil Biology Laboratory, Department of Botany, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore 641 046, India.
106
Laboratorio de Ecología Terrestre, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional (CINVESTAV), C.P. 927310 Mérida, México.
107
Department of Biology, Universitas Bangka Belitung (UBB), Kampus Merawang, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung 33172, Indonesia.
108
Programa de Pós Graduação em Ecologia e Conservação, Universidade do Estado de Mato Grosso-UNEMAT, 78200-000 Cáceres, Mato Grosso, Brazil.
109
Faculty of Forestry, Universitas Sumatera Utara, Medan 20155, Indonesia.
110
Department of Biodiversity, Evolution and Ecology of Plants, Biocentre Klein Flottbek, University of Hamburg, D-22609 Hamburg, Germany.
111
Institut Sophia Agrobiotech, 06903 Sophia Antipolis Cedex, France.
112
World Resource Institute, Washington, DC 20002.
113
Centre for Mountain Ecosystem Studies, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming 650201, China.
114
Departamento de Engenharia Florestal, Universidade de Brasília, 70910-900, Brasília, Distrito Federal, Brazil.
115
Nicholas School of the Environment, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708.
116
College of Biological Sciences, University of Minnesota, St. Paul, MN 55108.
117
International Institute of Information Technology, Gachibowli, Hyderabad, Telangana 500032, India.
118
Sigur Nature Trust, Chadapatti, Masinagudi PO Nilgiris, TN 643223, India.
119
Bureau Waardenburg, 4100 AJ Culemborg, The Netherlands.
120
Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ecologia e Conservação da Biodiversidade, Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia 45662-900, Brazil.
121
Laboratório de Restinga e Floresta Atlântica, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, BR-101 São Mateus, Brazil.
122
Tropical Biodiversity Section, MUSE - Museo delle Scienze, 38122 Trento, Italy.
123
Cibodas Botanic Gardens, Indonesian Institute of Sciences (LIPI), Cipanas, Cianjur, West Java 43253, Indonesia.
124
Department of Geography and Geology, University of Turku, Turku, 20014 Turun yliopisto, Finland.
125
School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.
126
Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia do Espírito Santo, São João de Petrópolis, Santa Teresa, 29660-000, Brazil.
127
Department of Evolutionary Biology and Environmental Studies, University of Zurich, CH-8057 Zurich, Switzerland.
128
Departamento de Sistemática e Ecologia, Universidade Federal da Paraíba, 58051-900, Brazil.
129
Remote Sensing Department (DSR), National Institute for Space Research (INPE), São José dos Campos, São Paulo 12227-010, Brazil.
130
Institute of Biodiversity, Animal Health and Comparative Medicine, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8QQ, United Kingdom.
131
Center for Development Research (ZEF), University of Bonn, 53113 Bonn, Germany.
132
Chair of Nature Conservation and Landscape Ecology, University of Freiburg, 79085 Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany.
133
H.J. Andrews Experimental Forest, Blue River, OR 97413.
134
Faculty of Environmental Sciences and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, 1432 Ås, Norway.
135
Cirad-ES, Campus International de Baillarguet, TA C-105/D 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.
136
Departamento de Ecologia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal, CEP 59078-970, Brazil.
137
World Wildlife Fund Thailand, Bangkok 10400, Thailand.
138
Africa and Madagascar Department, Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis, MO 63110.
139
Federal University of Technology-Paraná, 86812-460, Apucarana, PR, Brazil.
140
Departamento de Botânica, Cidade Universitária, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Recife, CEP, 50670-901, Brazil.
141
Key Laboratory of Tropical Plant Resources and Sustainable Use, Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Menglun Town, Mengla County, Yunnan Province 666303, China.
142
Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EA, United Kingdom.
143
Department of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen, 1165 Copenhagen, Denmark.
144
Department of Biological Sciences, Washington State University, Vancouver, WA 98686.
145
Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety, Authority, National Reference Centre, 6700HC Wageningen, The Netherlands.
146
Research Institute for Sustainable Humanosphere, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, Japan.
147
Science, Technology and International Cooperation Department, Vietnam National University of Forestry, Hanoi 144, Vietnam.
148
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109.
149
Department of Geography, University of Bergen, N-5020 Bergen, Norway.
150
Department of Forestry and Wood Technology, The Federal University of Technology, P.M.B. 704 Akure, Nigeria.
151
Arnold Arboretum, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02130.
152
Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117543, Singapore.
153
Brown University, Providence, RI 02912.
154
School of Natural Sciences and Psychology, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, United Kingdom.
155
Institute for Biodiversity and Ecosystem Dynamics, University of Amsterdam, 1098 Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
156
Instituto Politécnico Nacional, CIIDIR-Unidad Oaxaca, Santa Cruz Xoxocotlán, CP 71230, Oaxaca, Mexico.
157
Department of Floodplain Ecology, Institute of Geography and Geoecology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, D-76437 Rastatt, Germany.
158
College of Agriculture and Forestry, Hainan University, Meilan Qu Haikou Shi, 570228, Hainan Province, China.
159
Biosciences, Université Félix Houphouet-Boigny, Abidjan 22, Ivory Coast.
160
Institute of Arts and Sciences, Far Eastern University, Manila, Philippines.
161
Department of Biology, American University of Beirut, Riad El-Solh, Beirut 1107 2020, Lebanon.

Abstract

Knowledge about the biogeographic affinities of the world's tropical forests helps to better understand regional differences in forest structure, diversity, composition, and dynamics. Such understanding will enable anticipation of region-specific responses to global environmental change. Modern phylogenies, in combination with broad coverage of species inventory data, now allow for global biogeographic analyses that take species evolutionary distance into account. Here we present a classification of the world's tropical forests based on their phylogenetic similarity. We identify five principal floristic regions and their floristic relationships: (i) Indo-Pacific, (ii) Subtropical, (iii) African, (iv) American, and (v) Dry forests. Our results do not support the traditional neo- versus paleotropical forest division but instead separate the combined American and African forests from their Indo-Pacific counterparts. We also find indications for the existence of a global dry forest region, with representatives in America, Africa, Madagascar, and India. Additionally, a northern-hemisphere Subtropical forest region was identified with representatives in Asia and America, providing support for a link between Asian and American northern-hemisphere forests.

KEYWORDS:

biogeographic legacies; forest classification; forest functional similarity; phylogenetic community distance; tropical forests

PMID:
29432167
PMCID:
PMC5828595
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1714977115
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Conflict of interest statement

Conflict of interest statement: V.A.-R., K.B.-G., B.B., F.Q.B., N.F., M.K., W.F.L., S. G. Letcher, C.B.S., D.S., T. Stevart, and S. Wiser have coauthored papers with Jens-Christian Svenning in the past 48 months. A.M.L. and Jens-Christian Svenning are both affiliated with Aarhus University.

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