Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Drug Metab Dispos. 2019 Nov;47(11):1247-1256. doi: 10.1124/dmd.119.088658. Epub 2019 Sep 6.

Metabolism of Strained Rings: Glutathione S-transferase-Catalyzed Formation of a Glutathione-Conjugated Spiro-azetidine without Prior Bioactivation.

Author information

1
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Research and Early Development Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolism (X.-Q.L., E.-H.B., L.W.), Hit Discovery, Discovery Sciences (M.A.H.), and Medicinal Chemistry, Early Respiratory, Inflammation and Autoimmunity (G.G.), BioPharmaceuticals R&D, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden; and Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia (N.C.J.).
2
Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics, Research and Early Development Cardiovascular, Renal and Metabolism (X.-Q.L., E.-H.B., L.W.), Hit Discovery, Discovery Sciences (M.A.H.), and Medicinal Chemistry, Early Respiratory, Inflammation and Autoimmunity (G.G.), BioPharmaceuticals R&D, AstraZeneca, Gothenburg, Sweden; and Department of Chemistry, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia (N.C.J.) lars.weidolf@astrazeneca.com.

Abstract

AZD1979 [(3-(4-(2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptan-6-ylmethyl)phenoxy)azetidin-1-yl)(5-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)methanone] is a melanin-concentrating hormone receptor 1 antagonist designed for the treatment of obesity. In this study, metabolite profiles of AZD1979 in human hepatocytes revealed a series of glutathione-related metabolites, including the glutathionyl, cysteinyl, cysteinylglycinyl, and mercapturic acid conjugates. The formation of these metabolites was not inhibited by coincubation with the cytochrome P450 (P450) inhibitor 1-aminobenzotriazole. In efforts to identify the mechanistic features of this pathway, investigations were performed to characterize the structure of the glutathionyl conjugate M12 of AZD1979 and to identify the enzyme system catalyzing its formation. Studies with various human liver subcellular fractions established that the formation of M12 was NAD(P)H-independent and proceeded in cytosol and S9 fractions but not in microsomal or mitochondrial fractions. The formation of M12 was inhibited by ethacrynic acid, an inhibitor of glutathione S-transferases (GSTs). Several human recombinant GSTs, including GSTA1, A2-2, M1a, M2-2, T1-1, and GST from human placenta, were incubated with AZD1979. All GSTs tested catalyzed the formation of M12, with GSTA2-2 being the most efficient. Metabolite M12 was purified from rat liver S9 incubations and its structure elucidated by NMR. These results establish that M12 is the product of the GST-catalyzed glutathione attack on the carbon atom α to the nitrogen atom of the strained spiro-azetidinyl moiety to give, after ring opening, the corresponding amino-thioether conjugate product, a direct conjugation pathway that occurs without the prior substrate bioactivation by P450. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The investigated compound, AZD1979, contains a 6-substituted-2-oxa-6-azaspiro[3.3]heptanyl derivative that is an example of strained heterocycles, including spiro-fused ring systems, that are widely used in synthetic organic chemistry. An unusual azetidinyl ring-opening reaction involving a nucleophilic attack by glutathione, which does not involve prior cytochrome P450-catalyzed bioactivation of the substrate and which is catalyzed by glutathione transferases, is reported. We propose a mechanism involving the protonated cyclic aminyl intermediate that undergoes nucleophilic attack by glutathione thiolate anion in this reaction, catalyzed by glutathione transferases.

PMID:
31492694
DOI:
10.1124/dmd.119.088658

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire
Loading ...
Support Center