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C. difficile infection induces an inferior IgG response to that induced by immunization and is associated with a lack of T follicular helper cell and memory B cell expansion.

Amadou Amani S, Shadid T, Ballard JD, Lang ML.

Infect Immun. 2019 Dec 23. pii: IAI.00829-19. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00829-19. [Epub ahead of print]


Deletion of a 19-Amino-Acid Region in Clostridioides difficile TcdB2 Results in Spontaneous Autoprocessing and Reduced Cell Binding and Provides a Nontoxic Immunogen for Vaccination.

Bland SJ, Larabee JL, Shadid TM, Lang ML, Ballard JD.

Infect Immun. 2019 Jul 23;87(8). pii: e00210-19. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00210-19. Print 2019 Aug.


Insights From Analysis of Human Antigen-Specific Memory B Cell Repertoires.

Shah HB, Smith K, Wren JD, Webb CF, Ballard JD, Bourn RL, James JA, Lang ML.

Front Immunol. 2019 Jan 15;9:3064. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.03064. eCollection 2018. Review.


Unique, Intersecting, and Overlapping Roles of C/EBP β and CREB in Cells of the Innate Immune System.

Larabee JL, Hauck G, Ballard JD.

Sci Rep. 2018 Nov 16;8(1):16931. doi: 10.1038/s41598-018-35184-y.


Clostridium difficile ClpP Homologues are Capable of Uncoupled Activity and Exhibit Different Levels of Susceptibility to Acyldepsipeptide Modulation.

Lavey NP, Shadid T, Ballard JD, Duerfeldt AS.

ACS Infect Dis. 2019 Jan 11;5(1):79-89. doi: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.8b00199. Epub 2018 Nov 26.


Pathogens boosted by food additive.

Ballard JD.

Nature. 2018 Jan 18;553(7688):285-286. doi: 10.1038/d41586-017-08775-4. No abstract available.


Cell-penetrating peptides derived from Clostridium difficile TcdB2 and a related large clostridial toxin.

Larabee JL, Hauck GD, Ballard JD.

J Biol Chem. 2018 Feb 2;293(5):1810-1819. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M117.815373. Epub 2017 Dec 15.


Amino Acid Differences in the 1753-to-1851 Region of TcdB Influence Variations in TcdB1 and TcdB2 Cell Entry.

Hunt JJ, Larabee JL, Ballard JD.

mSphere. 2017 Aug 2;2(4). pii: e00268-17. doi: 10.1128/mSphere.00268-17. eCollection 2017 Jul-Aug.


Intrinsic Toxin-Derived Peptides Destabilize and Inactivate Clostridium difficile TcdB.

Larabee JL, Bland SJ, Hunt JJ, Ballard JD.

mBio. 2017 May 16;8(3). pii: e00503-17. doi: 10.1128/mBio.00503-17.


Coordination between T helper cells, iNKT cells, and their follicular helper subsets in the humoral immune response against Clostridium difficile toxin B.

Rampuria P, Lang GA, Devera TS, Gilmore C, Ballard JD, Lang ML.

J Leukoc Biol. 2017 Feb;101(2):567-576. doi: 10.1189/jlb.4A0616-271R. Epub 2016 Aug 26.


Memory B Cells Encode Neutralizing Antibody Specific for Toxin B from the Clostridium difficile Strains VPI 10463 and NAP1/BI/027 but with Superior Neutralization of VPI 10463 Toxin B.

Devera TS, Lang GA, Lanis JM, Rampuria P, Gilmore CL, James JA, Ballard JD, Lang ML.

Infect Immun. 2015 Oct 26;84(1):194-204. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00011-15. Print 2016 Jan.


Immunization of Mice with Anthrax Protective Antigen Limits Cardiotoxicity but Not Hepatotoxicity Following Lethal Toxin Challenge.

Devera TS, Prusator DK, Joshi SK, Ballard JD, Lang ML.

Toxins (Basel). 2015 Jun 25;7(7):2371-84. doi: 10.3390/toxins7072371.


Exposure of neutralizing epitopes in the carboxyl-terminal domain of TcdB is altered by a proximal hypervariable region.

Larabee JL, Krumholz A, Hunt JJ, Lanis JM, Ballard JD.

J Biol Chem. 2015 Mar 13;290(11):6975-85. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M114.612184. Epub 2015 Jan 22.


Variations in virulence and molecular biology among emerging strains of Clostridium difficile.

Hunt JJ, Ballard JD.

Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2013 Dec;77(4):567-81. doi: 10.1128/MMBR.00017-13. Review.


Clostridium difficile 027/BI/NAP1 encodes a hypertoxic and antigenically variable form of TcdB.

Lanis JM, Heinlen LD, James JA, Ballard JD.

PLoS Pathog. 2013;9(8):e1003523. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1003523. Epub 2013 Aug 1.


Toxin inhibition of antimicrobial factors induced by Bacillus anthracis peptidoglycan in human blood.

Barua S, Iyer JK, Larabee JL, Raisley B, Hughes MA, Coggeshall KM, Ballard JD.

Infect Immun. 2013 Oct;81(10):3693-702. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00709-13. Epub 2013 Jul 22.


Increased cAMP in monocytes augments Notch signaling mechanisms by elevating RBP-J and transducin-like enhancer of Split (TLE).

Larabee JL, Shakir SM, Barua S, Ballard JD.

J Biol Chem. 2013 Jul 26;288(30):21526-36. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.465120. Epub 2013 Jun 17.


Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin reduces human alveolar epithelial barrier function.

Langer M, Duggan ES, Booth JL, Patel VI, Zander RA, Silasi-Mansat R, Ramani V, Veres TZ, Prenzler F, Sewald K, Williams DM, Coggeshall KM, Awasthi S, Lupu F, Burian D, Ballard JD, Braun A, Metcalf JP.

Infect Immun. 2012 Dec;80(12):4374-87. doi: 10.1128/IAI.01011-12. Epub 2012 Oct 1.


Determination of serum antibodies to Clostridium difficile toxin B in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

Shakir FA, Ali T, Bigham AC, Ballard JD, Miner PB Jr, Philpott JR.

Gastroenterol Hepatol (N Y). 2012 May;8(5):313-7.


TcdB from hypervirulent Clostridium difficile exhibits increased efficiency of autoprocessing.

Lanis JM, Hightower LD, Shen A, Ballard JD.

Mol Microbiol. 2012 Apr;84(1):66-76. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2012.08009.x. Epub 2012 Feb 28.


Serum amyloid A protects murine macrophages from lethal toxin-mediated death.

Rose K, Long P, Shankar M, Ballard JD, Webb CF.

Cell Immunol. 2012;272(2):175-81. doi: 10.1016/j.cellimm.2011.10.014. Epub 2011 Oct 29.


Differential inflammatory responses triggered by toxic small molecules.

Barua S, Larabee J, Regens JL, Ballard JD.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2012 Mar;19(3):619-27. doi: 10.1007/s11356-011-0593-2. Epub 2011 Sep 1.


Regulation of anthrax toxin-specific antibody titers by natural killer T cell-derived IL-4 and IFNγ.

Devera TS, Joshi SK, Aye LM, Lang GA, Ballard JD, Lang ML.

PLoS One. 2011;6(8):e23817. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023817. Epub 2011 Aug 17.


Glycogen synthase kinase 3 activation is important for anthrax edema toxin-induced dendritic cell maturation and anthrax toxin receptor 2 expression in macrophages.

Larabee JL, Maldonado-Arocho FJ, Pacheco S, France B, DeGiusti K, Shakir SM, Bradley KA, Ballard JD.

Infect Immun. 2011 Aug;79(8):3302-8. doi: 10.1128/IAI.05070-11. Epub 2011 May 16.


Adenomatous polyposis coli protein associates with C/EBP beta and increases Bacillus anthracis edema toxin-stimulated gene expression in macrophages.

Larabee JL, Shakir SM, Hightower L, Ballard JD.

J Biol Chem. 2011 Jun 3;286(22):19364-72. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.224543. Epub 2011 Apr 12.


Anthrax vaccination induced anti-lethal factor IgG: fine specificity and neutralizing capacity.

Crowe SR, Garman L, Engler RJ, Farris AD, Ballard JD, Harley JB, James JA.

Vaccine. 2011 May 9;29(20):3670-8. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2011.03.011. Epub 2011 Mar 21.


Ab initio calculations for industrial materials engineering: successes and challenges.

Wimmer E, Najafabadi R, Young GA Jr, Ballard JD, Angeliu TM, Vollmer J, Chambers JJ, Niimi H, Shaw JB, Freeman C, Christensen M, Wolf W, Saxe P.

J Phys Condens Matter. 2010 Sep 29;22(38):384215. doi: 10.1088/0953-8984/22/38/384215. Epub 2010 Sep 7.


Autoregulatory characteristics of a Bacillus anthracis serine/threonine kinase.

Bryant-Hudson KM, Shakir SM, Ballard JD.

J Bacteriol. 2011 Apr;193(8):1833-42. doi: 10.1128/JB.01401-10. Epub 2011 Feb 4.


Medical microbiology: A toxin contest.

Ballard JD.

Nature. 2010 Oct 7;467(7316):665-6. doi: 10.1038/467665a. No abstract available.


Variations in TcdB activity and the hypervirulence of emerging strains of Clostridium difficile.

Lanis JM, Barua S, Ballard JD.

PLoS Pathog. 2010 Aug 19;6(8):e1001061. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1001061.


Clostridium difficile infection.

Heinlen L, Ballard JD.

Am J Med Sci. 2010 Sep;340(3):247-52. doi: 10.1097/MAJ.0b013e3181e939d8. Review.


Select human anthrax protective antigen epitope-specific antibodies provide protection from lethal toxin challenge.

Crowe SR, Ash LL, Engler RJ, Ballard JD, Harley JB, Farris AD, James JA.

J Infect Dis. 2010 Jul 15;202(2):251-60. doi: 10.1086/653495.


Inflammatory cytokine response to Bacillus anthracis peptidoglycan requires phagocytosis and lysosomal trafficking.

Iyer JK, Khurana T, Langer M, West CM, Ballard JD, Metcalf JP, Merkel TJ, Coggeshall KM.

Infect Immun. 2010 Jun;78(6):2418-28. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00170-10. Epub 2010 Mar 22.


CD1d-dependent B-cell help by NK-like T cells leads to enhanced and sustained production of Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin-neutralizing antibodies.

Devera TS, Aye LM, Lang GA, Joshi SK, Ballard JD, Lang ML.

Infect Immun. 2010 Apr;78(4):1610-7. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00002-10. Epub 2010 Feb 1.


Clostridium sordellii toxic shock syndrome.

Aronoff DM, Ballard JD.

Lancet Infect Dis. 2009 Dec;9(12):725-6. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(09)70303-2. No abstract available.


Regulatory interactions of a virulence-associated serine/threonine phosphatase-kinase pair in Bacillus anthracis.

Shakir SM, Bryant KM, Larabee JL, Hamm EE, Lovchik J, Lyons CR, Ballard JD.

J Bacteriol. 2010 Jan;192(2):400-9. doi: 10.1128/JB.01221-09. Epub 2009 Nov 13.


Resistance of human alveolar macrophages to Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin.

Wu W, Mehta H, Chakrabarty K, Booth JL, Duggan ES, Patel KB, Ballard JD, Coggeshall KM, Metcalf JP.

J Immunol. 2009 Nov 1;183(9):5799-806. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.0803406. Epub 2009 Oct 7.


Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin disrupts TCR signaling in CD1d-restricted NKT cells leading to functional anergy.

Joshi SK, Lang GA, Larabee JL, Devera TS, Aye LM, Shah HB, Ballard JD, Lang ML.

PLoS Pathog. 2009 Sep;5(9):e1000588. doi: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1000588. Epub 2009 Sep 25. Erratum in: PLoS Pathog. 2009 Oct;5(10) doi: 10.1371/annotation/cfc9c388-05fa-4b1c-8c5f-99835278a458.


The major neutralizing antibody responses to recombinant anthrax lethal and edema factors are directed to non-cross-reactive epitopes.

Nguyen ML, Terzyan S, Ballard JD, James JA, Farris AD.

Infect Immun. 2009 Nov;77(11):4714-23. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00749-09. Epub 2009 Aug 31.


Sequential B-cell epitopes of Bacillus anthracis lethal factor bind lethal toxin-neutralizing antibodies.

Nguyen ML, Crowe SR, Kurella S, Teryzan S, Cao B, Ballard JD, James JA, Farris AD.

Infect Immun. 2009 Jan;77(1):162-9. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00788-08. Epub 2008 Nov 3.


The mechanism of Bacillus anthracis intracellular germination requires multiple and highly diverse genetic loci.

Barua S, McKevitt M, DeGiusti K, Hamm EE, Larabee J, Shakir S, Bryant K, Koehler TM, Blanke SR, Dyer D, Gillaspy A, Ballard JD.

Infect Immun. 2009 Jan;77(1):23-31. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00801-08. Epub 2008 Oct 20.


Inhibition of Bacillus anthracis spore outgrowth by nisin.

Gut IM, Prouty AM, Ballard JD, van der Donk WA, Blanke SR.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2008 Dec;52(12):4281-8. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00625-08. Epub 2008 Sep 22.


Bacillus anthracis edema toxin activates nuclear glycogen synthase kinase 3beta.

Larabee JL, DeGiusti K, Regens JL, Ballard JD.

Infect Immun. 2008 Nov;76(11):4895-904. doi: 10.1128/IAI.00889-08. Epub 2008 Sep 2.


High-throughput, single-cell analysis of macrophage interactions with fluorescently labeled Bacillus anthracis spores.

Stojkovic B, Torres EM, Prouty AM, Patel HK, Zhuang L, Koehler TM, Ballard JD, Blanke SR.

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2008 Aug;74(16):5201-10. doi: 10.1128/AEM.02890-07. Epub 2008 Jun 13.


Effects of endogenous D-alanine synthesis and autoinhibition of Bacillus anthracis germination on in vitro and in vivo infections.

McKevitt MT, Bryant KM, Shakir SM, Larabee JL, Blanke SR, Lovchik J, Lyons CR, Ballard JD.

Infect Immun. 2007 Dec;75(12):5726-34. Epub 2007 Oct 8.


Critical intermediate steps in Clostridium sordellii lethal toxin-induced apoptosis.

Voth DE, Ballard JD.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Nov 30;363(4):959-64. Epub 2007 Sep 29.


Identification of genes that confer sediment fitness to Desulfovibrio desulfuricans G20.

Luo Q, Groh JL, Ballard JD, Krumholz LR.

Appl Environ Microbiol. 2007 Oct;73(19):6305-12. Epub 2007 Aug 17.


The generation of domain boundaries in catalytically-grown carbon nanotubes.

Dell'Acqua-Bellavitis LM, Ballard JD, Vajtai R, Ajayan PM, Siegel RW.

J Nanosci Nanotechnol. 2007 Jul;7(7):2335-42.


Elucidating the in vivo targets of bacterial toxins.

Hamm EE, Ballard JD.

Future Microbiol. 2007 Feb;2(1):85-92. Review.


Functional comparison of the two Bacillus anthracis glutamate racemases.

Dodd D, Reese JG, Louer CR, Ballard JD, Spies MA, Blanke SR.

J Bacteriol. 2007 Jul;189(14):5265-75. Epub 2007 May 11.

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