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Clin J Am Soc Nephrol. 2019 Oct 7;14(10):1441-1449. doi: 10.2215/CJN.00530119. Epub 2019 Sep 24.

Healthy Dietary Patterns and Incidence of CKD: A Meta-Analysis of Cohort Studies.

Author information

1
Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, Robina, Queensland, Australia.
2
Faculty of Health Sciences and Medicine, Bond University, Robina, Queensland, Australia; jkelly@bond.edu.au.
3
Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Christchurch, New Zealand.
4
Physical Activity Research Group, Appleton Institute and School of Health, Medical and Applied Sciences, Central Queensland University, Queensland, Australia.
5
Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation, University of Bari, Bari, Italy.
6
Diaverum Academy, Lund, Sweden; and.
7
Faculty of Medicine and Health, School of Public Health, University of Sydney, Camperdown, Australia.

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES:

Whether a healthy dietary pattern may prevent the incidence of developing CKD is unknown. This study evaluated the associations between dietary patterns and the incidence of CKD in adults and children.

DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS:

This systematic review and meta-analysis identified potential studies through a systematic search of MEDLINE, Embase and references from eligible studies from database inception to February 2019. Eligible studies were prospective and retrospective cohort studies including adults and children without CKD, where the primary exposure was dietary patterns. To be eligible, studies had to report on the primary outcome, incidence of CKD (eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2). Two authors independently extracted data, assessed risk of bias and evidence certainty using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale and GRADE.

RESULTS:

Eighteen prospective cohort studies involving 630,108 adults (no children) with a mean follow-up of 10.4±7.4 years were eligible for analysis. Included studies had an overall low risk of bias. The evidence certainty was moderate for CKD incidence and low for eGFR decline (percentage drop from baseline or reduced by at least 3 ml/min per 1.73 m2 per year) and incident albuminuria. Healthy dietary patterns typically encouraged higher intakes of vegetables, fruit, legumes, nuts, whole grains, fish and low-fat dairy, and lower intakes of red and processed meats, sodium, and sugar-sweetened beverages. A healthy dietary pattern was associated with a lower incidence of CKD (odds ratio [OR] 0.70 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.60 to 0.82); I 2=51%; eight studies), and incidence of albuminuria (OR 0.77, [95% CI, 0.59 to 0.99]; I 2=37%); four studies). There appeared to be no significant association between healthy dietary patterns and eGFR decline (OR 0.70 [95% CI, 0.49 to 1.01], I 2=49%; four studies).

CONCLUSIONS:

A healthy dietary pattern may prevent CKD and albuminuria.

KEYWORDS:

DASH; Diet; Mediterranean; adult; albuminuria; child; chronic kidney disease; chronic renal insufficiency; diet; dietary patterns; fabaceae; fat-restricted; follow-up studies; fruit; glomerular filtration rate; human; incidence; nuts; prospective studies; retrospective studies; sodium; sugars; sweetening agents; systematic review; vegetables; whole grains

Comment in

PMID:
31551237
DOI:
10.2215/CJN.00530119

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