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B cell function impacts the efficacy of IFN-β therapy in EAE.

Agasing AM, Gawde S, Kumar G, Turner E, Axtell RC.

J Neuroimmunol. 2020 Jan 15;338:577106. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2019.577106. Epub 2019 Nov 6.


Epstein Barr virus nuclear antigen 1 (EBNA-1) peptides recognized by adult multiple sclerosis patient sera induce neurologic symptoms in a murine model.

Jog NR, McClain MT, Heinlen LD, Gross T, Towner R, Guthridge JM, Axtell RC, Pardo G, Harley JB, James JA.

J Autoimmun. 2020 Jan;106:102332. doi: 10.1016/j.jaut.2019.102332. Epub 2019 Sep 9.


Immunization-Expanded NKT Follicular Helper Cells Drive IgG1 Isotype Switch against an Exogenous T-Independent Polysaccharide but Do Not Promote Recall Responses.

Lang GA, Amadou Amani S, Quinn JL, Axtell RC, Lang ML.

Immunohorizons. 2019 Mar;3(3):88-93. doi: 10.4049/immunohorizons.1800081.


Emerging Role of Follicular T Helper Cells in Multiple Sclerosis and Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis.

Quinn JL, Axtell RC.

Int J Mol Sci. 2018 Oct 19;19(10). pii: E3233. doi: 10.3390/ijms19103233. Review.


Role of TFH Cells in Promoting T Helper 17-Induced Neuroinflammation.

Quinn JL, Kumar G, Agasing A, Ko RM, Axtell RC.

Front Immunol. 2018 Feb 27;9:382. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2018.00382. eCollection 2018.


Amelioration of ongoing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis with fluoxetine.

Bhat R, Mahapatra S, Axtell RC, Steinman L.

J Neuroimmunol. 2017 Dec 15;313:77-81. doi: 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2017.10.012. Epub 2017 Oct 21.


Adrenocorticotropic hormone versus methylprednisolone added to interferon β in patients with multiple sclerosis experiencing breakthrough disease: a randomized, rater-blinded trial.

Berkovich R, Bakshi R, Amezcua L, Axtell RC, Cen SY, Tauhid S, Neema M, Steinman L.

Ther Adv Neurol Disord. 2017 Jan;10(1):3-17. doi: 10.1177/1756285616670060. Epub 2016 Oct 19.


Loss of Nrf2 exacerbates the visual deficits and optic neuritis elicited by experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Larabee CM, Desai S, Agasing A, Georgescu C, Wren JD, Axtell RC, Plafker SM.

Mol Vis. 2016 Dec 30;22:1503-1513. eCollection 2016.


Myelin-specific Th17 cells induce severe relapsing optic neuritis with irreversible loss of retinal ganglion cells in C57BL/6 mice.

Larabee CM, Hu Y, Desai S, Georgescu C, Wren JD, Axtell RC, Plafker SM.

Mol Vis. 2016 Apr 11;22:332-41. eCollection 2016.


Cytokine profiles show heterogeneity of interferon-β response in multiple sclerosis patients.

Hegen H, Adrianto I, Lessard CJ, Millonig A, Bertolotto A, Comabella M, Giovannoni G, Guger M, Hoelzl M, Khalil M, Fazekas F, Killestein J, Lindberg RL, Malucchi S, Mehling M, Montalban X, Rudzki D, Schautzer F, Sellebjerg F, Sorensen PS, Deisenhammer F, Steinman L, Axtell RC.

Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm. 2016 Jan 27;3(2):e202. doi: 10.1212/NXI.0000000000000202. eCollection 2016 Apr.


mir-181a-1/b-1 Modulates Tolerance through Opposing Activities in Selection and Peripheral T Cell Function.

Schaffert SA, Loh C, Wang S, Arnold CP, Axtell RC, Newell EW, Nolan G, Ansel KM, Davis MM, Steinman L, Chen CZ.

J Immunol. 2015 Aug 15;195(4):1470-9. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1401587. Epub 2015 Jul 10.


B-lymphocyte-mediated delayed cognitive impairment following stroke.

Doyle KP, Quach LN, Solé M, Axtell RC, Nguyen TV, Soler-Llavina GJ, Jurado S, Han J, Steinman L, Longo FM, Schneider JA, Malenka RC, Buckwalter MS.

J Neurosci. 2015 Feb 4;35(5):2133-45. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4098-14.2015.


IFN-β treatment requires B cells for efficacy in neuroautoimmunity.

Schubert RD, Hu Y, Kumar G, Szeto S, Abraham P, Winderl J, Guthridge JM, Pardo G, Dunn J, Steinman L, Axtell RC.

J Immunol. 2015 Mar 1;194(5):2110-6. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1402029. Epub 2015 Feb 2.


Astrocytic TGF-β signaling limits inflammation and reduces neuronal damage during central nervous system Toxoplasma infection.

Cekanaviciute E, Dietrich HK, Axtell RC, Williams AM, Egusquiza R, Wai KM, Koshy AA, Buckwalter MS.

J Immunol. 2014 Jul 1;193(1):139-49. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1303284. Epub 2014 May 23.


Defective sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor 1 (S1P1) phosphorylation exacerbates TH17-mediated autoimmune neuroinflammation.

Garris CS, Wu L, Acharya S, Arac A, Blaho VA, Huang Y, Moon BS, Axtell RC, Ho PP, Steinberg GK, Lewis DB, Sobel RA, Han DK, Steinman L, Snyder MP, Hla T, Han MH.

Nat Immunol. 2013 Nov;14(11):1166-72. doi: 10.1038/ni.2730. Epub 2013 Sep 29.


The interdependent, overlapping, and differential roles of type I and II IFNs in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Naves R, Singh SP, Cashman KS, Rowse AL, Axtell RC, Steinman L, Mountz JD, Steele C, De Sarno P, Raman C.

J Immunol. 2013 Sep 15;191(6):2967-77. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1300419. Epub 2013 Aug 19.


Th17 cells induce Th1-polarizing monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

Davidson MG, Alonso MN, Yuan R, Axtell RC, Kenkel JA, Suhoski MM, González JC, Steinman L, Engleman EG.

J Immunol. 2013 Aug 1;191(3):1175-87. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1203201. Epub 2013 Jun 21.


Depleting tumor-specific Tregs at a single site eradicates disseminated tumors.

Marabelle A, Kohrt H, Sagiv-Barfi I, Ajami B, Axtell RC, Zhou G, Rajapaksa R, Green MR, Torchia J, Brody J, Luong R, Rosenblum MD, Steinman L, Levitsky HI, Tse V, Levy R.

J Clin Invest. 2013 Jun;123(6):2447-63. Erratum in: J Clin Invest. 2013 Nov;123(11):4980.


Piet Mondrian's trees and the evolution in understanding multiple sclerosis, Charcot Prize Lecture 2011.

Steinman L, Axtell RC, Barbieri D, Bhat R, Brownell SE, de Jong BA, Dunn SE, Grant JL, Han MH, Ho PP, Kuipers HF, Kurnellas MP, Ousman SS, Rothbard JB.

Mult Scler. 2013 Jan;19(1):5-14. doi: 10.1177/1352458512470730.


CD5-dependent CK2 activation pathway regulates threshold for T cell anergy.

Sestero CM, McGuire DJ, De Sarno P, Brantley EC, Soldevila G, Axtell RC, Raman C.

J Immunol. 2012 Sep 15;189(6):2918-30. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1200065. Epub 2012 Aug 17.


Reversal of paralysis and reduced inflammation from peripheral administration of β-amyloid in TH1 and TH17 versions of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Grant JL, Ghosn EE, Axtell RC, Herges K, Kuipers HF, Woodling NS, Andreasson K, Herzenberg LA, Herzenberg LA, Steinman L.

Sci Transl Med. 2012 Aug 1;4(145):145ra105. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.3004145.


Janus-like opposing roles of CD47 in autoimmune brain inflammation in humans and mice.

Han MH, Lundgren DH, Jaiswal S, Chao M, Graham KL, Garris CS, Axtell RC, Ho PP, Lock CB, Woodard JI, Brownell SE, Zoudilova M, Hunt JF, Baranzini SE, Butcher EC, Raine CS, Sobel RA, Han DK, Weissman I, Steinman L.

J Exp Med. 2012 Jul 2;209(7):1325-34. doi: 10.1084/jem.20101974. Epub 2012 Jun 25.


Janus-like effects of type I interferon in autoimmune diseases.

Axtell RC, Raman C.

Immunol Rev. 2012 Jul;248(1):23-35. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2012.01131.x. Review.


Serum IL-17F does not predict poor response to IM IFNβ-1a in relapsing-remitting MS.

Bushnell SE, Zhao Z, Stebbins CC, Cadavid D, Buko AM, Whalley ET, Davis JA, Versage EM, Richert JR, Axtell RC, Steinman L, Medori R.

Neurology. 2012 Aug 7;79(6):531-7. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0b013e318259e123. Epub 2012 May 9.


Protective effect of an elastase inhibitor in a neuromyelitis optica-like disease driven by a peptide of myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein.

Herges K, de Jong BA, Kolkowitz I, Dunn C, Mandelbaum G, Ko RM, Maini A, Han MH, Killestein J, Polman C, Goodyear AL, Dunn J, Steinman L, Axtell RC.

Mult Scler. 2012 Apr;18(4):398-408. doi: 10.1177/1352458512440060. Epub 2012 Feb 16.


Therapeutic effects of systemic administration of chaperone αB-crystallin associated with binding proinflammatory plasma proteins.

Rothbard JB, Kurnellas MP, Brownell S, Adams CM, Su L, Axtell RC, Chen R, Fathman CG, Robinson WH, Steinman L.

J Biol Chem. 2012 Mar 23;287(13):9708-21. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M111.337691. Epub 2012 Feb 3.


Type I interferons: beneficial in Th1 and detrimental in Th17 autoimmunity.

Axtell RC, Raman C, Steinman L.

Clin Rev Allergy Immunol. 2013 Apr;44(2):114-20. doi: 10.1007/s12016-011-8296-5. Review.


Interleukin-16 deficiency suppresses the development of chronic rejection in murine cardiac transplantation model.

Kimura N, Itoh S, Nakae S, Axtell RC, Velotta JB, Bos EJ, Merk DR, Gong Y, Okamura H, Nagamine CM, Adachi H, Kornfeld H, Robbins RC, Fischbein MP.

J Heart Lung Transplant. 2011 Dec;30(12):1409-17. doi: 10.1016/j.healun.2011.08.017.


Interleukin-17 accelerates allograft rejection by suppressing regulatory T cell expansion.

Itoh S, Kimura N, Axtell RC, Velotta JB, Gong Y, Wang X, Kajiwara N, Nambu A, Shimura E, Adachi H, Iwakura Y, Saito H, Okumura K, Sudo K, Steinman L, Robbins RC, Nakae S, Fischbein MP.

Circulation. 2011 Sep 13;124(11 Suppl):S187-96. doi: 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.110.014852.


Treatment of brain inflammatory diseases by delivering exosome encapsulated anti-inflammatory drugs from the nasal region to the brain.

Zhuang X, Xiang X, Grizzle W, Sun D, Zhang S, Axtell RC, Ju S, Mu J, Zhang L, Steinman L, Miller D, Zhang HG.

Mol Ther. 2011 Oct;19(10):1769-79. doi: 10.1038/mt.2011.164. Epub 2011 Sep 13. Erratum in: Mol Ther. 2012 Jan;20(1):239.


Interferon-β exacerbates Th17-mediated inflammatory disease.

Axtell RC, Raman C, Steinman L.

Trends Immunol. 2011 Jun;32(6):272-7. doi: 10.1016/ Epub 2011 Apr 29. Review.


Common variants in P2RY11 are associated with narcolepsy.

Kornum BR, Kawashima M, Faraco J, Lin L, Rico TJ, Hesselson S, Axtell RC, Kuipers H, Weiner K, Hamacher A, Kassack MU, Han F, Knudsen S, Li J, Dong X, Winkelmann J, Plazzi G, Nevsimalova S, Hong SC, Honda Y, Honda M, Högl B, Ton TG, Montplaisir J, Bourgin P, Kemlink D, Huang YS, Warby S, Einen M, Eshragh JL, Miyagawa T, Desautels A, Ruppert E, Hesla PE, Poli F, Pizza F, Frauscher B, Jeong JH, Lee SP, Strohl KP, Longstreth WT Jr, Kvale M, Dobrovolna M, Ohayon MM, Nepom GT, Wichmann HE, Rouleau GA, Gieger C, Levinson DF, Gejman PV, Meitinger T, Peppard P, Young T, Jennum P, Steinman L, Tokunaga K, Kwok PY, Risch N, Hallmayer J, Mignot E.

Nat Genet. 2011 Jan;43(1):66-71. doi: 10.1038/ng.734. Epub 2010 Dec 19. Erratum in: Nat Genet. 2011 Oct;43(10):1040.


T helper type 1 and 17 cells determine efficacy of interferon-beta in multiple sclerosis and experimental encephalomyelitis.

Axtell RC, de Jong BA, Boniface K, van der Voort LF, Bhat R, De Sarno P, Naves R, Han M, Zhong F, Castellanos JG, Mair R, Christakos A, Kolkowitz I, Katz L, Killestein J, Polman CH, de Waal Malefyt R, Steinman L, Raman C.

Nat Med. 2010 Apr;16(4):406-12. doi: 10.1038/nm.2110. Epub 2010 Mar 28.


IL-17 contributes to the development of chronic rejection in a murine heart transplant model.

Itoh S, Nakae S, Axtell RC, Velotta JB, Kimura N, Kajiwara N, Iwakura Y, Saito H, Adachi H, Steinman L, Robbins RC, Fischbein MP.

J Clin Immunol. 2010 Mar;30(2):235-40. doi: 10.1007/s10875-009-9366-9. Epub 2010 Feb 4.


Gaining entry to an uninflamed brain.

Axtell RC, Steinman L.

Nat Immunol. 2009 May;10(5):453-5. doi: 10.1038/ni0509-453. No abstract available.


Lithium prevents and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

De Sarno P, Axtell RC, Raman C, Roth KA, Alessi DR, Jope RS.

J Immunol. 2008 Jul 1;181(1):338-45.


Type 1 interferons cool the inflamed brain.

Axtell RC, Steinman L.

Immunity. 2008 May;28(5):600-2. doi: 10.1016/j.immuni.2008.04.006.


Critical requirement of CD11b (Mac-1) on T cells and accessory cells for development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Bullard DC, Hu X, Schoeb TR, Axtell RC, Raman C, Barnum SR.

J Immunol. 2005 Nov 15;175(10):6327-33.


Serological differences in three Blastomyces dermatitidis strains.

Axtell RC, Scalarone GM.

Mycoses. 2002 Dec;45(11-12):437-42.


AP2 adaptor complex-dependent internalization of CD5: differential regulation in T and B cells.

Lu X, Axtell RC, Collawn JF, Gibson A, Justement LB, Raman C.

J Immunol. 2002 Jun 1;168(11):5612-20.


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