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Aging (Albany NY). 2018 Oct 25;10(10):2973-2990. doi: 10.18632/aging.101603.

Quantitative characterization of biological age and frailty based on locomotor activity records.

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Gero LLC, Moscow 1015064, Russia.
Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY 14263, USA.
Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, Dolgoprudny 141700, Moscow Region, Russia.


We performed a systematic evaluation of the relationships between locomotor activity and signatures of frailty, morbidity, and mortality risks using physical activity records from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) and UK BioBank (UKB). We proposed a statistical description of the locomotor activity tracks and transformed the provided time series into vectors representing physiological states for each participant. The Principal Component Analysis of the transformed data revealed a winding trajectory with distinct segments corresponding to subsequent human development stages. The extended linear phase starts from 35-40 years old and is associated with the exponential increase of mortality risks according to the Gompertz mortality law. We characterized the distance traveled along the aging trajectory as a natural measure of biological age and demonstrated its significant association with frailty and hazardous lifestyles, along with the remaining lifespan and healthspan of an individual. The biological age explained most of the variance of the log-hazard ratio that was obtained by fitting directly to mortality and the incidence of chronic diseases. Our findings highlight the intimate relationship between the supervised and unsupervised signatures of the biological age and frailty, a consequence of the low intrinsic dimensionality of the aging dynamics.


NHANES; UK Biobank; biological clock; health span; physical activity

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