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J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2019 Jul 9. pii: jpet.119.259267. doi: 10.1124/jpet.119.259267. [Epub ahead of print]

In Vitro and In Silico Analyses of the Inhibition of Human Aldehyde Oxidase by Bazedoxifene, Lasofoxifene, and Structural Analogues.

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National University of Singapore, Singapore.
Institute of Life Science, Swansea University Medical School, United Kingdom.
NanoBioTec, LLC., Whippany, New Jersey, U.S.A.
National University of Singapore, Singapore;


Tamoxifen, raloxifene, and nafoxidine are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) reported to inhibit the catalytic activity of human aldehyde oxidase 1 (AOX1). How these drugs interact with AOX1 and whether other SERMs inhibit this drug-metabolizing enzyme are not known. Therefore, a detailed in vitro and in silico study involving parent drugs and their analogues was conducted to investigate the effect of specific SERMs, particularly acolbifene, bazedoxifene, and lasofoxifene on AOX1 catalytic activity, as assessed by carbazeran 4-oxidation, an AOX1-selective catalytic marker. The rank-order in the potency (based on IC50 values) of AOX1 inhibition by SERMs was raloxifene > bazedoxifene ~ lasofoxifene > tamoxifen > acolbifene. Inhibition of liver cytosolic AOX1 by bazedoxifene, lasofoxifene, and tamoxifen was competitive, whereas that by raloxifene was noncompetitive. Loss of 1-azepanylethyl group increased the inhibitory potency of bazedoxifene, whereas the N-oxide group decreased it. The 7-hydroxy group and the substituted pyrrolidine ring attached to the tetrahydronaphthalene structure contributed to AOX1 inhibition by lasofoxifene. These results are supported by molecular docking simulations in terms of predicted binding modes, encompassing binding orientation and efficiency, and analysis of key interactions, particularly hydrogen bonds. The extent of AOX1 inhibition by bazedoxifene was increased by estrone sulfate and estrone. In summary, SERMs differentially inhibited human AOX1 catalytic activity. Structural features of bazedoxifene and lasofoxifene contributed to AOX1 inhibition, whereas those of acolbifene rendered it considerably less susceptible to AOX1 inhibition. Overall, our novel biochemical findings and molecular docking analyses provide new insights into the interaction between SERMs and AOX1. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Aldehyde oxidase (AOX1) is a molybdo-flavoprotein and has emerged as a drug-metabolizing enzyme of potential therapeutic importance because drugs have been identified as AOX1 substrates. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM), which are drugs used to treat and prevent various conditions, differentially inhibit AOX1 catalytic activity. Structural features of bazedoxifene and lasofoxifene contribute to AOX1 inhibition, whereas those of acolbifene render it considerably less susceptible to AOX1 inhibition. Our novel biochemical findings, together with molecular docking analyses, provide new insights into the differential inhibitory effect of SERMs on the catalytic activity of human AOX1, how SERMs bind to AOX1, and increase our understanding of the AOX1 pharmacophore in the inhibition of AOX1 by drugs and other chemicals.


drug metabolism; enzyme kinetics; estrone; inhibition

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