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Int J Vet Sci Med. 2018 Jul 6;6(2):192-200. doi: 10.1016/j.ijvsm.2018.06.003. eCollection 2018 Dec.

Populations of Eimeria tenella express resistance to commonly used anticoccidial drugs in southern Nigeria.

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1
Department of Animal and Environmental Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Port Harcourt, PMB 5323 Port Harcourt, Rivers State, Nigeria.

Abstract

Coccidiosis is one of the most economically important diseases of poultry. This study determined the preponderance of chicken Eimeria in southern Nigeria and assessed the parasite's resistance to three anticoccidial drugs: Amprolium hydrochloride; Amprolium hydrochloride + Sulfaquinoxaline-Sodium; and Toltrazuril. Multiplex PCR amplification of the SCAR region was used to confirm Eimeria preponderance. Resistance was assessed following the inoculation of 2.32 × 105 infective oocysts into broilers. Data on weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and fecal oocyst shed were recorded. At 7 days post inoculation 9 birds per treatment were sacrificed and assessed for macroscopic lesions in four intestinal regions. Percent optimum anticoccidial activity (POAA), Anticoccidial index (ACI) and Anticoccidial sensitivity test (AST) were used to access resistance. The preponderance of Eimeria spp. were E. tenella (77%), E. necatrix (55%), E. acervulina (44%) and E. mitis (11%), with multi-species infection occurring in 55% of samples assessed. Fecal oocyst shedding was low (P < 0.05) in the medicated groups. Lesions in the cecal region were present in all infected groups regardless of treatment and accounted for 27.8% of lesion scores by severity and 37.5% of lesion scores by frequency. Overall, lesion scores were less (P < 0.05) in birds of the medicated groups compared with the infected-unmedicated group. The high preponderance of E. tenella in the field, and the occurrence of cecal lesions - caused mainly by E. tenella- despite drug administration, indicate resistance in populations of this species in our isolate. Based-on the POAA, ACI and AST values, the Eimeria isolate showed reduced sensitivity to toltrazuril.

KEYWORDS:

Amprolium; Cecal Coccidiosis; Drug resistance; Preponderance; Sulphaquinoxaline; Toltrazuril

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