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Plant Physiol. 2019 Apr;179(4):1692-1703. doi: 10.1104/pp.18.00771. Epub 2019 Jan 29.

Development of Decreased-Gluten Wheat Enabled by Determination of the Genetic Basis of lys3a Barley.

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Arcadia Biosciences, Davis, California 95618.
Data2Bio, 2079 Roy J. Carver Co-Lab, Ames, Iowa 50011.
2035B Roy J. Carver Co-Lab, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa 50011.
Arcadia Biosciences, Davis, California 95618


Celiac disease is the most common food-induced enteropathy in humans, with a prevalence of approximately 1% worldwide. It is induced by digestion-resistant, proline- and glutamine-rich seed storage proteins, collectively referred to as gluten, found in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Related prolamins are present in barley (Hordeum vulgare) and rye (Secale cereale). The incidence of both celiac disease and a related condition called nonceliac gluten sensitivity is increasing. This has prompted efforts to identify methods of lowering gluten in wheat, one of the most important cereal crops. Here, we used bulked segregant RNA sequencing and map-based cloning to identify the genetic lesion underlying a recessive, low-prolamin mutation (lys3a) in diploid barley. We confirmed the mutant identity by complementing the lys3a mutant with a transgenic copy of the wild-type barley gene and then used targeting-induced local lesions in genomes to identify induced single-nucleotide polymorphisms in the three homeologs of the corresponding wheat gene. Combining inactivating mutations in the three subgenomes of hexaploid bread wheat in a single wheat line lowered gliadin and low-molecular-weight glutenin accumulation by 50% to 60% and increased free and protein-bound lysine by 33%.

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