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Infect Drug Resist. 2015 Jul 31;8:263-7. doi: 10.2147/IDR.S84209. eCollection 2015.

Prevalence and resistance pattern of Moraxella catarrhalis in community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections.

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Department of Pulmonology, Liaquat National Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan.



Moraxella catarrhalis previously considered as commensal of upper respiratory tract has gained importance as a pathogen responsible for respiratory tract infections. Its beta-lactamase-producing ability draws even more attention toward its varying patterns of resistance.


This was an observational study conducted to evaluate the prevalence and resistance pattern of M. catarrhalis. Patients aged 20-80 years admitted in the Department of Chest Medicine of Liaquat National Hospital from March 2012 to December 2012 were included in the study. Respiratory samples of sputum, tracheal secretions, and bronchoalveolar lavage were included, and their cultures were followed.


Out of 110 respiratory samples, 22 showed positive cultures for M. catarrhalis in which 14 were males and eight were females. Ten samples out of 22 showed resistance to clarithromycin, and 13 samples out of 22 displayed resistance to erythromycin, whereas 13 showed resistance to levofloxacin. Hence, 45% of the cultures showed resistance to macrolides so far and 59% showed resistance to quinolones.


Our study shows that in our environment, M. catarrhalis may be resistant to macrolides and quinolones; hence, these should not be recommended as an alternative treatment in community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections caused by M. catarrhalis. However, a study of larger sample size should be conducted to determine if the recommendations are required to be changed.


M. catarrhalis; Pakistan; antibiotic resistance; community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections or pneumonia; gram-negative diplococcic

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