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The X-linked histone demethylase Kdm6a in CD4+ T lymphocytes modulates autoimmunity.

Itoh Y, Golden LC, Itoh N, Matsukawa MA, Ren E, Tse V, Arnold AP, Voskuhl RR.

J Clin Invest. 2019 Aug 12;130:3852-3863. doi: 10.1172/JCI126250. eCollection 2019 Aug 12.


XX sex chromosome complement promotes atherosclerosis in mice.

AlSiraj Y, Chen X, Thatcher SE, Temel RE, Cai L, Blalock E, Katz W, Ali HM, Petriello M, Deng P, Morris AJ, Wang X, Lusis AJ, Arnold AP, Reue K, Thompson K, Tso P, Cassis LA.

Nat Commun. 2019 Jun 14;10(1):2631. doi: 10.1038/s41467-019-10462-z.


Rethinking sex determination of non-gonadal tissues.

Arnold AP.

Curr Top Dev Biol. 2019;134:289-315. doi: 10.1016/bs.ctdb.2019.01.003. Epub 2019 Feb 12.


The mouse as a model of fundamental concepts related to Turner syndrome.

Arnold AP.

Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet. 2019 Mar;181(1):76-85. doi: 10.1002/ajmg.c.31681. Epub 2019 Feb 19. Review.


Gene-by-Sex Interactions in Mitochondrial Functions and Cardio-Metabolic Traits.

Norheim F, Hasin-Brumshtein Y, Vergnes L, Chella Krishnan K, Pan C, Seldin MM, Hui ST, Mehrabian M, Zhou Z, Gupta S, Parks BW, Walch A, Reue K, Hofmann SM, Arnold AP, Lusis AJ.

Cell Metab. 2019 Apr 2;29(4):932-949.e4. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2018.12.013. Epub 2019 Jan 10.


Sexual Inequality in the Cancer Cell.

Arnold AP, Disteche CM.

Cancer Res. 2018 Oct 1;78(19):5504-5505. doi: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-18-2219.


Incorporating sex as a biological variable in neuroscience: what do we gain?

McCarthy MM, Woolley CS, Arnold AP.

Nat Rev Neurosci. 2017 Dec;18(12):707-708. doi: 10.1038/nrn.2017.137. Epub 2017 Nov 3. No abstract available.


The Y Chromosome Plays a Protective Role in Experimental Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension.

Umar S, Cunningham CM, Itoh Y, Moazeni S, Vaillancourt M, Sarji S, Centala A, Arnold AP, Eghbali M.

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018 Apr 1;197(7):952-955. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201707-1345LE. No abstract available.


A Guide for the Design of Pre-clinical Studies on Sex Differences in Metabolism.

Mauvais-Jarvis F, Arnold AP, Reue K.

Cell Metab. 2017 Jun 6;25(6):1216-1230. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2017.04.033. Review.


Y chromosome's roles in sex differences in disease.

Arnold AP.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Apr 11;114(15):3787-3789. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1702161114. Epub 2017 Mar 30. No abstract available.


Sex Hormones and Sex Chromosomes Cause Sex Differences in the Development of Cardiovascular Diseases.

Arnold AP, Cassis LA, Eghbali M, Reue K, Sandberg K.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2017 May;37(5):746-756. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.116.307301. Epub 2017 Mar 9. Review.


Diet, gonadal sex, and sex chromosome complement influence white adipose tissue miRNA expression.

Link JC, Hasin-Brumshtein Y, Cantor RM, Chen X, Arnold AP, Lusis AJ, Reue K.

BMC Genomics. 2017 Jan 17;18(1):89. doi: 10.1186/s12864-017-3484-1.


A primer on the use of mouse models for identifying direct sex chromosome effects that cause sex differences in non-gonadal tissues.

Burgoyne PS, Arnold AP.

Biol Sex Differ. 2016 Dec 13;7:68. doi: 10.1186/s13293-016-0115-5. eCollection 2016. Review.


A general theory of sexual differentiation.

Arnold AP.

J Neurosci Res. 2017 Jan 2;95(1-2):291-300. doi: 10.1002/jnr.23884. Review.


Considering sex as a biological variable in preclinical research.

Miller LR, Marks C, Becker JB, Hurn PD, Chen WJ, Woodruff T, McCarthy MM, Sohrabji F, Schiebinger L, Wetherington CL, Makris S, Arnold AP, Einstein G, Miller VM, Sandberg K, Maier S, Cornelison TL, Clayton JA.

FASEB J. 2017 Jan;31(1):29-34. doi: 10.1096/fj.201600781R. Epub 2016 Sep 28. Review.


Report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Working Group on Sex Differences Research in Cardiovascular Disease: Scientific Questions and Challenges.

Maric-Bilkan C, Arnold AP, Taylor DA, Dwinell M, Howlett SE, Wenger N, Reckelhoff JF, Sandberg K, Churchill G, Levin E, Lundberg MS.

Hypertension. 2016 May;67(5):802-7. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.115.06967. Epub 2016 Mar 14. Review. No abstract available.


The importance of having two X chromosomes.

Arnold AP, Reue K, Eghbali M, Vilain E, Chen X, Ghahramani N, Itoh Y, Li J, Link JC, Ngun T, Williams-Burris SM.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2016 Feb 19;371(1688):20150113. doi: 10.1098/rstb.2015.0113. Epub 2016 Feb 1. Review.


Are females more variable than males in gene expression? Meta-analysis of microarray datasets.

Itoh Y, Arnold AP.

Biol Sex Differ. 2015 Oct 29;6:18. doi: 10.1186/s13293-015-0036-8. eCollection 2015.


Sex differences in diurnal rhythms of food intake in mice caused by gonadal hormones and complement of sex chromosomes.

Chen X, Wang L, Loh DH, Colwell CS, Taché Y, Reue K, Arnold AP.

Horm Behav. 2015 Sep;75:55-63. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2015.07.020. Epub 2015 Jul 29.


Increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in mice with XX versus XY sex chromosomes.

Link JC, Chen X, Prien C, Borja MS, Hammerson B, Oda MN, Arnold AP, Reue K.

Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2015 Aug;35(8):1778-86. doi: 10.1161/ATVBAHA.115.305460. Epub 2015 Jun 25.


Four core genotypes mouse model: localization of the Sry transgene and bioassay for testicular hormone levels.

Itoh Y, Mackie R, Kampf K, Domadia S, Brown JD, O'Neill R, Arnold AP.

BMC Res Notes. 2015 Mar 7;8:69. doi: 10.1186/s13104-015-0986-2.


The XX Sex Chromosome Complement is Required in Male and Female Mice for Enhancement of Immunity Induced by Exposure to 3,4-Dichloropropionanilide.

Holásková I, Franko J, Goodman RL, Arnold AP, Schafer R.

Am J Reprod Immunol. 2015 Aug;74(2):136-47. doi: 10.1111/aji.12378. Epub 2015 Mar 12.


Sex differences in ischemic stroke sensitivity are influenced by gonadal hormones, not by sex chromosome complement.

Manwani B, Bentivegna K, Benashski SE, Venna VR, Xu Y, Arnold AP, McCullough LD.

J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2015 Feb;35(2):221-9. doi: 10.1038/jcbfm.2014.186. Epub 2014 Nov 12.


The effects of perinatal testosterone exposure on the DNA methylome of the mouse brain are late-emerging.

Ghahramani NM, Ngun TC, Chen PY, Tian Y, Krishnan S, Muir S, Rubbi L, Arnold AP, de Vries GJ, Forger NG, Pellegrini M, Vilain E.

Biol Sex Differ. 2014 Jun 13;5:8. doi: 10.1186/2042-6410-5-8. eCollection 2014.


Feminized behavior and brain gene expression in a novel mouse model of Klinefelter Syndrome.

Ngun TC, Ghahramani NM, Creek MM, Williams-Burris SM, Barseghyan H, Itoh Y, Sánchez FJ, McClusky R, Sinsheimer JS, Arnold AP, Vilain E.

Arch Sex Behav. 2014 Aug;43(6):1043-57. doi: 10.1007/s10508-014-0316-0. Epub 2014 Jun 13.


Sex chromosome complement influences operant responding for a palatable food in mice.

Seu E, Groman SM, Arnold AP, Jentsch JD.

Genes Brain Behav. 2014 Jul;13(6):527-534. doi: 10.1111/gbb.12143. Epub 2014 Jun 16.


X chromosome regulation of autosomal gene expression in bovine blastocysts.

Itoh Y, Arnold AP.

Chromosoma. 2014 Oct;123(5):481-9. doi: 10.1007/s00412-014-0461-1. Epub 2014 May 13.


The number of X chromosomes influences protection from cardiac ischaemia/reperfusion injury in mice: one X is better than two.

Li J, Chen X, McClusky R, Ruiz-Sundstrom M, Itoh Y, Umar S, Arnold AP, Eghbali M.

Cardiovasc Res. 2014 Jun 1;102(3):375-84. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvu064. Epub 2014 Mar 19.


XY sex chromosome complement, compared with XX, in the CNS confers greater neurodegeneration during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

Du S, Itoh N, Askarinam S, Hill H, Arnold AP, Voskuhl RR.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Feb 18;111(7):2806-11. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1307091111. Epub 2014 Feb 3.


Conceptual frameworks and mouse models for studying sex differences in physiology and disease: why compensation changes the game.

Arnold AP.

Exp Neurol. 2014 Sep;259:2-9. doi: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2014.01.021. Epub 2014 Feb 7. Review.


The Sex Chromosome Trisomy mouse model of XXY and XYY: metabolism and motor performance.

Chen X, Williams-Burris SM, McClusky R, Ngun TC, Ghahramani N, Barseghyan H, Reue K, Vilain E, Arnold AP.

Biol Sex Differ. 2013 Aug 8;4(1):15. doi: 10.1186/2042-6410-4-15.


Metabolic impact of sex chromosomes.

Link JC, Chen X, Arnold AP, Reue K.

Adipocyte. 2013 Apr 1;2(2):74-9. doi: 10.4161/adip.23320.


Gonadal- and sex-chromosome-dependent sex differences in the circadian system.

Kuljis DA, Loh DH, Truong D, Vosko AM, Ong ML, McClusky R, Arnold AP, Colwell CS.

Endocrinology. 2013 Apr;154(4):1501-12. doi: 10.1210/en.2012-1921. Epub 2013 Feb 25.


X and Y chromosome complement influence adiposity and metabolism in mice.

Chen X, McClusky R, Itoh Y, Reue K, Arnold AP.

Endocrinology. 2013 Mar;154(3):1092-104. doi: 10.1210/en.2012-2098. Epub 2013 Feb 8.


Cell-autonomous sex determination outside of the gonad.

Arnold AP, Chen X, Link JC, Itoh Y, Reue K.

Dev Dyn. 2013 Apr;242(4):371-9. doi: 10.1002/dvdy.23936. Epub 2013 Mar 1. Review.


Impact of experience-dependent and -independent factors on gene expression in songbird brain.

Drnevich J, Replogle KL, Lovell P, Hahn TP, Johnson F, Mast TG, Nordeen E, Nordeen K, Strand C, London SE, Mukai M, Wingfield JC, Arnold AP, Ball GF, Brenowitz EA, Wade J, Mello CV, Clayton DF.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Oct 16;109 Suppl 2:17245-52. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1200655109. Epub 2012 Oct 8.


What a difference an X or Y makes: sex chromosomes, gene dose, and epigenetics in sexual differentiation.

Arnold AP, Chen X, Itoh Y.

Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2012;(214):67-88. doi: 10.1007/978-3-642-30726-3_4. Review.


The number of x chromosomes causes sex differences in adiposity in mice.

Chen X, McClusky R, Chen J, Beaven SW, Tontonoz P, Arnold AP, Reue K.

PLoS Genet. 2012;8(5):e1002709. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1002709. Epub 2012 May 10.


Understanding the sexome: measuring and reporting sex differences in gene systems.

Arnold AP, Lusis AJ.

Endocrinology. 2012 Jun;153(6):2551-5. doi: 10.1210/en.2011-2134. Epub 2012 Mar 20. Review.


Sex differences in the brain: the not so inconvenient truth.

McCarthy MM, Arnold AP, Ball GF, Blaustein JD, De Vries GJ.

J Neurosci. 2012 Feb 15;32(7):2241-7. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5372-11.2012. Review. No abstract available.


The end of gonad-centric sex determination in mammals.

Arnold AP.

Trends Genet. 2012 Feb;28(2):55-61. doi: 10.1016/j.tig.2011.10.004. Epub 2011 Nov 9.


Sex chromosome complement contributes to sex differences in coxsackievirus B3 but not influenza A virus pathogenesis.

Robinson DP, Huber SA, Moussawi M, Roberts B, Teuscher C, Watkins R, Arnold AP, Klein SL.

Biol Sex Differ. 2011 Aug 1;2:8. doi: 10.1186/2042-6410-2-8.


Possible differences in the two Z chromosomes in male chickens and evolution of MHM sequences in Galliformes.

Itoh Y, Kampf K, Arnold AP.

Chromosoma. 2011 Dec;120(6):587-98. doi: 10.1007/s00412-011-0333-x. Epub 2011 Jul 27.


Factors causing sex differences in birds.

Arnold AP, Itoh Y.

Avian Biol Res. 2011 Jul 1;4(2). doi: 10.3184/175815511X13070045977959.


Reframing sexual differentiation of the brain.

McCarthy MM, Arnold AP.

Nat Neurosci. 2011 Jun;14(6):677-83. doi: 10.1038/nn.2834. Epub 2011 May 25. Review.


Karyotypic polymorphism of the zebra finch Z chromosome.

Itoh Y, Kampf K, Balakrishnan CN, Arnold AP.

Chromosoma. 2011 Jun;120(3):255-64. doi: 10.1007/s00412-010-0308-3. Epub 2011 Jan 11.


Zebra finch cell lines from naturally occurring tumors.

Itoh Y, Arnold AP.

In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim. 2011 Apr;47(4):280-2. doi: 10.1007/s11626-011-9392-9. Epub 2011 Feb 27.


Promoting the understanding of sex differences to enhance equity and excellence in biomedical science.

Arnold AP.

Biol Sex Differ. 2010 Nov 4;1(1):1. doi: 10.1186/2042-6410-1-1. No abstract available.


Sex differences in renal angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) activity are 17β-oestradiol-dependent and sex chromosome-independent.

Liu J, Ji H, Zheng W, Wu X, Zhu JJ, Arnold AP, Sandberg K.

Biol Sex Differ. 2010 Nov 5;1(1):6. doi: 10.1186/2042-6410-1-6.


Dissociation of genetic and hormonal influences on sex differences in alcoholism-related behaviors.

Barker JM, Torregrossa MM, Arnold AP, Taylor JR.

J Neurosci. 2010 Jul 7;30(27):9140-4. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0548-10.2010.

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