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Scand J Caring Sci. 2012 Jun;26(2):254-61. doi: 10.1111/j.1471-6712.2011.00926.x. Epub 2011 Oct 10.

A randomized control trial: the effect of guided imagery with tape and perceived happy memory on chronic tension type headache.

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Nursing and Midwifery Care Research Centre, Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran.



To determine the effects of guided imagery techniques with tape and perceived happy memory on people with chronic tension-type headache (CTTH).


Sixty people with CTTH completed the demographic questionnaire and headache diary 1 week before the treatment, that is, for 3 weeks during the treatment and 1 week immediately after that. The people were randomly assigned into one of three different treatment groups: a Guided imagery (GI) with tape group (n = 20), a GI with perceived happy memory group (n = 20) and a control group (n = 20). In addition to individualized headache therapy, subjects listened to a guided imagery audiocassette tape or imagined the happiest personal memory three times per week for 3 weeks. It should be noted that 20 control subjects received individualized therapy without guided imagery.


The guided imagery groups both tape and perceived happy memory had significantly more improvement than the controls in three of the outcome measures; headache intensity, headache frequency and headache duration. There were no other significant differences between the guided imagery groups (tape and perceived happy memory) at any time point.


Guided imagery is an effective, available and affordable nonpharmacological therapy either with tape or with perceived happy memory for the management of the CTTH.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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