Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Food Funct. 2013 Apr 30;4(5):777-83. doi: 10.1039/c3fo30327f.

Almond protein hydrolysate fraction modulates the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and enzymes in activated macrophages.

Author information

1
Health and Bio-products Research Laboratory, Department of Environmental Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Dalhousie University, Truro, Nova Scotia B2N 5E3, Canada. cudenigwe@dal.ca

Abstract

Simulated gastrointestinal treatment of almond proteins with pepsin and pancreatic proteases resulting in 16.6% degree of hydrolysis or 1.33 milliequivalent leucine per g protein yielded a hydrolysate that modulated excessive nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. After fractionation, a resulting fraction of molecular size > 5 kDa retained the nitric oxide modulatory effect observed initially in the crude hydrolysate. The high molecular size fraction was found to modulate levels of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α in the activated cells. Immunoblotting analysis indicated that the hydrolysate fraction decreased the expression levels of inflammatory enzyme indicators, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in the activated cells. RT-PCR analysis showed that treatment of the activated cells with the hydrolysate fraction resulted in the inhibition of relative gene expressions of proinflammatory IL-6, IL-1β, TNF-α, iNOS and COX-2. These results indicate a potential application of almond protein hydrolysates against inflammatory conditions, and will contribute to delineating the possible contributions of proteins to health benefits attributed to almond consumption.

PMID:
23575976
DOI:
10.1039/c3fo30327f
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Royal Society of Chemistry
Loading ...
Support Center