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Sci Rep. 2017 Feb 20;7:41020. doi: 10.1038/srep41020.

Performance, kinetic, and biodegradation pathway evaluation of anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor in removing phthalic acid esters from wastewater.

Author information

1
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
2
Students' Scientific Research Center (SSRC), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
3
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, I.R. Iran.
4
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Aradan School of Public Health and Paramedical, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.
5
Environmental Science and Technology Research Center, Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
6
Young Researchers and Elite club, Shahr-e-Qods Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
7
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
8
Department of Environmental Health, School of Public Health, Sabzevar University of Medical Sciences, Sabzevar, Iran.
9
Center for Water Quality Research (CWQR), Institute for Environmental Research (IER), Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
10
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
11
Student Research Committee, Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences, Ahvaz, Iran.
12
Department of Accounting, College of Management and Accounting, Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH) Shahre Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran.
13
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
14
Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran.
15
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Guilan University of Medical Sciences, Rasht, Iran.
16
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
17
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences, Mashhad, Iran.
18
Social Determinants of Health Research Center, Yasuj University of Medical Sciences, Yasuj, Iran.
19
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Babol University of Medical Sciences, Babol, Iran.
20
Research Center for Health, Safety and Environment (RCHSE), Alborz University of Medical Sciences, Karaj, Iran.
21
Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Eastern Mediterranean University, Famagusta, North Cyprus.
22
Department of Occupational Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
23
Neyshabur University of Medical Sciences, Neyshabur, Iran.
24
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Public Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran.
25
Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Student Research Committee, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.

Abstract

Emerging and hazardous environmental pollutants like phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are one of the recent concerns worldwide. PAEs are considered to have diverse endocrine disrupting effects on human health. Industrial wastewater has been reported as an important environment with high concentrations of PAEs. In the present study, four short-chain PAEs including diallyl phthalate (DAP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), dimethyl phthalate (DMP), and phthalic acid (PA) were selected as a substrate for anaerobic fixed film fixed bed reactor (AnFFFBR). The process performances of AnFFFBR, and also its kinetic behavior, were evaluated to find the best eco-friendly phthalate from the biodegradability point of view. According to the results and kinetic coefficients, removing and mineralizing of DMP occurred at a higher rate than other phthalates. In optimum conditions 92.5, 84.41, and 80.39% of DMP, COD, and TOC were removed. DAP was found as the most bio-refractory phthalate. The second-order (Grau) model was selected as the best model for describing phthalates removal.

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