Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Science. 2019 Sep 6;365(6457). pii: eaat7487. doi: 10.1126/science.aat7487.

The formation of human populations in South and Central Asia.

Narasimhan VM1, Patterson N2,3, Moorjani P4,5, Rohland N6,7, Bernardos R6, Mallick S6,7,8, Lazaridis I6, Nakatsuka N6,9, Olalde I6, Lipson M6, Kim AM6,10, Olivieri LM11, Coppa A12, Vidale M11,13, Mallory J14, Moiseyev V15, Kitov E16,17,18, Monge J19, Adamski N6,8, Alex N20, Broomandkhoshbacht N6,8, Candilio F21,22, Callan K6,8, Cheronet O21,23,24, Culleton BJ25, Ferry M6,8, Fernandes D21,23,24,26, Freilich S24, Gamarra B21,23,27, Gaudio D21,23, Hajdinjak M28, Harney É6,8,29, Harper TK30, Keating D21, Lawson AM6,8, Mah M6,7,8, Mandl K24, Michel M6,8, Novak M21,31, Oppenheimer J6,8, Rai N32,33, Sirak K6,21,34, Slon V28, Stewardson K6,8, Zalzala F6,8, Zhang Z6, Akhatov G17, Bagashev AN35, Bagnera A11, Baitanayev B17, Bendezu-Sarmiento J36, Bissembaev AA17,37, Bonora GL38, Chargynov TT39, Chikisheva T40, Dashkovskiy PK41, Derevianko A40, Dobeš M42, Douka K43,44, Dubova N16, Duisengali MN37, Enshin D35, Epimakhov A45,46, Fribus AV47, Fuller D48,49, Goryachev A35, Gromov A15, Grushin SP50, Hanks B51, Judd M51, Kazizov E17, Khokhlov A52, Krygin AP53, Kupriyanova E54, Kuznetsov P52, Luiselli D55, Maksudov F56, Mamedov AM57, Mamirov TB17, Meiklejohn C58, Merrett DC59, Micheli R11,60, Mochalov O52, Mustafokulov S56,61, Nayak A43, Pettener D62, Potts R63, Razhev D35, Rykun M64, Sarno S62, Savenkova TM65, Sikhymbaeva K66, Slepchenko SM35, Soltobaev OA39, Stepanova N40, Svyatko S15,67, Tabaldiev K68, Teschler-Nicola M24,69, Tishkin AA70, Tkachev VV71, Vasilyev S16,72, Velemínský P73, Voyakin D17,74, Yermolayeva A17, Zahir M43,75, Zubkov VS76, Zubova A15, Shinde VS77, Lalueza-Fox C78, Meyer M28, Anthony D79, Boivin N43, Thangaraj K32, Kennett DJ25,30,80, Frachetti M81,82, Pinhasi R83,24, Reich D1,7,8,84.

Author information

1
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA. vagheesh@mail.harvard.edu nickp@broadinstitute.org frachetti@wustl.edu ron.pinhasi@univie.ac.at reich@genetics.med.harvard.edu.
2
Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA. vagheesh@mail.harvard.edu nickp@broadinstitute.org frachetti@wustl.edu ron.pinhasi@univie.ac.at reich@genetics.med.harvard.edu.
3
Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
4
Department of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
5
Center for Computational Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
6
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
7
Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT, Cambridge, MA 02142, USA.
8
Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
9
Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
10
Department of Anthropology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
11
ISMEO - International Association of Mediterranean and Oriental Studies, Italian Archaeological Mission in Pakistan, 19200 Saidu Sharif (Swat), Pakistan.
12
Department of Environmental Biology, Sapienza University, Rome 00185, Italy.
13
Department of Cultural Heritage: Archaeology and History of Art, Cinema and Music, University of Padua, Padua 35139, Italy.
14
School of Natural and Built Environment, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland, UK.
15
Peter the Great Museum of Anthropology and Ethnography (Kunstkamera), Russian Academy of Science, St. Petersburg 199034, Russia.
16
Center of Physical Anthropology, Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow 119991, Russia.
17
A.Kh. Margulan Institute of Archaeology, Almaty 050010, Kazakhstan.
18
Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty 050040, Kazakhstan.
19
University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA.
20
Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, USA.
21
Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland.
22
Soprintendenza Archeologia, Belle Arti e Paesaggio per la Città Metropolitana di Cagliari e le Province di Oristano e Sud Sardegna, Cagliari 09124, Italy.
23
School of Archaeology, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland.
24
Department of Evolutionary Anthropology, University of Vienna, 1090 Vienna, Austria.
25
Institutes of Energy and the Environment, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
26
CIAS, Department of Life Sciences, University of Coimbra, Coimbra 3000-456, Portugal.
27
Catalan Institute of Human Paleoecology and Social Evolution (IPHES), Tarragona 43007, Spain.
28
Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology, Leipzig 04103, Germany.
29
Department of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.
30
Department of Anthropology, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802, USA.
31
Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb 10000, Croatia.
32
CSIR-Centre for Cellular and Molecular Biology, Hyderabad 500 007, India.
33
Birbal Sahni Institute of Palaeosciences, Lucknow 226007, India.
34
Department of Anthropology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA.
35
Tyumen Scientific Centre SB RAS, Institute of the Problems of Northern Development, Tyumen 625003, Russia.
36
CNRS-EXT500, Directeur de la Delegation Archaologique Francaise en Afghanistan (DAFA), Embassy of France in Kabul, Afghanistan.
37
Aktobe Regional Historical Museum, Aktobe 030006, Kazakhstan.
38
Archaeology of Asia Department, ISMEO - International Association of Mediterranean and Oriental Studies, Rome RM00186, Italy.
39
Kyrgyz National University, 720033 Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
40
Institute of Archaeology and Ethnography, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk 630090, Russia.
41
Department of Political History, National and State-Confessional Relations, Altai State University, Barnaul 656049, Russia.
42
Institute of Archaeology, Czech Academy of Sciences, Prague 118 01, Czech Republic.
43
Department of Archaeology, Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History, Jena 07745, Germany.
44
Oxford Radiocarbon Accelerator Unit, Research Laboratory for Archaeology and the History of Art, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3QY, UK.
45
Institute of History and Archaeology, Ural Branch RAS, Yekaterinburg 620990, Russia.
46
South Ural State University, Chelyabinsk 454080, Russia.
47
Department of Archaeology, Kemerovo State University, Kemerovo 650043, Russia.
48
Institute of Archaeology, University College London, London WC1H 0PY, UK.
49
School of Cultural Heritage, Northwest University, Shanxi, 710069, China.
50
Department of Archaeology, Ethnography and Museology, Altai State University, Barnaul 656049, Russia.
51
Department of Anthropology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15260, USA.
52
Samara State University of Social Sciences and Education, Samara 443099, Russia.
53
West Kazakhstan Regional Center for History and Archaeology, Uralsk 090000, Kazakhstan.
54
Scientific and Educational Center of Study on the Problem of Nature and Man, Chelyabinsk State University, Chelyabinsk 454021, Russia.
55
Department of Cultural Heritage, University of Bologna, 48121 Ravenna, Italy.
56
Institute for Archaeological Research, Uzbekistan Academy of Sciences, Samarkand 140151, Uzbekistan.
57
Center for Research, Restoration and Protection of Historical and Cultural Heritage of Aktobe Region, Aktobe 030007, Kazakhstan.
58
Department of Anthropology, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg, MB R3B 2E9, Canada.
59
Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC V5A 1S6, Canada.
60
MiBAC - Ministero per i Beni e le Attività Culturali - Soprintendenza Archeologia, belle arti e paesaggio del Friuli Venezia Giulia, 34135 Trieste, Italy.
61
Afrosiab Museum, Samarkand 140151, Uzbekistan.
62
Department of Biological, Geological and Environmental Sciences, Alma Mater Studiorum - University of Bologna, Bologna 40126, Italy.
63
Human Origins Program, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC 20013, USA.
64
National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk 634050, Russia.
65
F. Voino-Yasenetsky Krasnoyarsk State Medical University, Krasnoyarsk 660022, Russia.
66
Central State Museum Republic of Kazakhstan, Samal-1 Microdistrict, Almaty 050010, Kazakhstan.
67
CHRONO Centre for Climate, the Environment, and Chronology, Queen's University of Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland, UK.
68
Kyrgyz-Turkish Manas University, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan.
69
Department of Anthropology, Natural History Museum Vienna, 1010 Vienna, Austria.
70
Department of Archaeology, Ethnography and Museology, The Laboratory of Interdisciplinary Studies in Archaeology of Western Siberia and Altai, Altai State University, Barnaul 656049, Russia.
71
Institute of Steppe, Ural Branch RAS, Orenburg 460000, Russia.
72
Center for Egyptological Studies RAS, Moscow 119991, Russia.
73
Department of Anthropology, National Museum, Prague 115 79, Czech Republic.
74
Archaeological Expertise LLP, Almaty 050060, Kazakhstan.
75
Department of Archaeology, Hazara University, Mansehra 21300, Pakistan.
76
N.F. Katanov Khakassia State University, Abakan 655017, Russia.
77
Department of Archaeology, Deccan College Post-Graduate and Research Institute, Pune 411006, India.
78
Institute of Evolutionary Biology, CSIC-Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Barcelona 08003, Spain.
79
Anthropology Department, Hartwick College, Oneonta, NY 13820, USA.
80
Department of Anthropology, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106, USA.
81
Department of Anthropology, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63112, USA. vagheesh@mail.harvard.edu nickp@broadinstitute.org frachetti@wustl.edu ron.pinhasi@univie.ac.at reich@genetics.med.harvard.edu.
82
Spatial Analysis, Interpretation, and Exploration Laboratory, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63112, USA.
83
Earth Institute, University College Dublin, Dublin 4, Ireland. vagheesh@mail.harvard.edu nickp@broadinstitute.org frachetti@wustl.edu ron.pinhasi@univie.ac.at reich@genetics.med.harvard.edu.
84
Max Planck-Harvard Research Center for the Archaeoscience of the Ancient Mediterranean, Cambridge, MA 02138, USA.

Abstract

By sequencing 523 ancient humans, we show that the primary source of ancestry in modern South Asians is a prehistoric genetic gradient between people related to early hunter-gatherers of Iran and Southeast Asia. After the Indus Valley Civilization's decline, its people mixed with individuals in the southeast to form one of the two main ancestral populations of South Asia, whose direct descendants live in southern India. Simultaneously, they mixed with descendants of Steppe pastoralists who, starting around 4000 years ago, spread via Central Asia to form the other main ancestral population. The Steppe ancestry in South Asia has the same profile as that in Bronze Age Eastern Europe, tracking a movement of people that affected both regions and that likely spread the distinctive features shared between Indo-Iranian and Balto-Slavic languages.

PMID:
31488661
DOI:
10.1126/science.aat7487

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for HighWire
Loading ...
Support Center