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Anesth Pain Med. 2016 Jul 26;6(5):e39495. eCollection 2016 Oct.

Treatment of Postoperative Pain in Pediatric Operations: Comparing the Efficiency of Bupivacaine, Bupivacaine-Dexmedetomidine and Bupivacaine-Fentanyl for Caudal Block.

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Anesthesiology, Critical Care and Pain Management Research Center, Hormozgan University of Medical Sciences, Bandar Abbas, Iran.



Caudal analgesia is a common method for postoperative pain management in pediatric patients. Additive agents such as opioids and α2 agonists have been used to enhance the analgesic effects of local anesthetics for caudal block.


The aim of this study was to compare the additive effects of dexmedetomidine and fentanyl on bupivacaine-induced caudal analgesia in pediatric patients who had undergone elective inguinal hernia repair.


This randomized, double-blind clinical trial included children aged 1 - 5 years who were divided into three groups: the bupivacaine group (Group B) received 0.25% bupivacaine (1 ml/kg), the bupivacaine-dexmedetomidine group (Group BD) received 0.25% bupivacaine (1 mL/kg) plus 2 µg/kg dexmedetomidine, and the bupivacaine-fentanyl group (Group BF) received 0.25% bupivacaine (1 mL/kg) plus 2 µg/kg fentanyl. The hemodynamic variables (heart rate, systolic blood pressure, respiratory rate, and peripheral arterial oxygen saturation) were measured perioperatively. Pain, sedation and motor block scores and adverse events (nausea and vomiting, pruritis, hypotension, bradycardia, urinary retention and respiratory depression) were documented at 30 and 60 minutes, and the 1st, 2nd, 4th, 6th, 12th and 24th hours after the operation. The other recordings include the duration of surgery and analgesic requirement.


A total of 61 patients were analyzed. The lowest pain scores were found in the BD group at all time points (P < 0.001). The sedation scores were higher in the BD group than in the other two groups at all time points (P < 0.001). No motor block was observed after the operation. Only three patients required analgesic administration 2 to 6 hours after the operation in group B. No side effects were observed in any of the groups, and there was no significant difference in the duration of surgery among the three groups.


The results show that the analgesic and sedative effects were better when dexmedetomidine was added to bupivacaine than when fentanyl was added or bupivacaine alone was administered in the pediatric population studied here that underwent elective inguinal hernia repair.


Anesthesia; Bupivacaine; Caudal; Dexmedetomidine; Fentanyl; Postoperative Pain

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