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Anat Histol Embryol. 2018 Oct;47(5):391-397. doi: 10.1111/ahe.12366. Epub 2018 Jun 7.

Morphological study of the hard palate in the Egyptian goats (Capra hircus): A scanning electron microscopic study.

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Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt.
Department of Anatomy and Physiology, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria, Onderstepoort, South Africa.
Department of Anatomy and Histology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.


The aim of this study was to investigate the morphology of the goat hard palate by light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), in addition to gross and morphometric analysis. A total of twelve goat heads, from normal adult and apparently healthy goats of both sexes, were collected from local slaughterhouses in Qena province, Egypt. Samples were subjected to gross examination, morphometric analysis, light microscopy and SEM. The hard palate in the goats was long and could be divided into a rostral narrow part and a caudal wide part with about 12-15 transverse palatine ridges from which the rostral palatine ridges were serrated on their free caudal edges. The dental pad replaced the upper incisors; its caudal border had a serrated appearance. At higher magnification, the epithelial surface of the palatine rugae and incisive papilla revealed a variety in the shape of the microplicae and the pattern of the micropits. These adaptations of the goat's hard palate might increase its efficiency during ingestion and mastication of coarse roughages and in directing the food backwards. To our knowledge, this is the first study showed the detailed anatomical description of the hard palate of the goat with SEM.


SEM; dental pad; goat; hard palate; morphometry; palatine ridges

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