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Environ Microbiol. 2017 Mar;19(3):1103-1119. doi: 10.1111/1462-2920.13637. Epub 2017 Feb 1.

The chimeric nature of the genomes of marine magnetotactic coccoid-ovoid bacteria defines a novel group of Proteobacteria.

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Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, LCB, Marseille, France.
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Laboratoire International Associé de la Bio-Minéralisation et Nano-Structures (LIA-BioMNSL), Marseille cedex 20, F-13402, France.
State Key Laboratories for Agro-biotechnology and College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.
Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, Institut de Génomique-Génoscope, Laboratoire d'Analyse Bioinformatique en Génomique et Métabolisme, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, Evry, F-91057, France.
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Unité Mixte de Recherche 8030, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, Evry, F-91057, France.
UEVE, Université d'Evry, Boulevard François Mitterrand, Evry, F-91025, France.
Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives, Institut de Génomique-Génoscope, Laboratoire de Biologie Moléculaire pour l'Etude des Génomes, 2 rue Gaston Crémieux, Evry cedex, CP 5706 - 91057, France.
Aix Marseille Univ, Univ Toulon, CNRS, IRD, Marseille, France.
Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, AFMB, Marseille, France.


Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) are a group of phylogenetically and physiologically diverse Gram-negative bacteria that synthesize intracellular magnetic crystals named magnetosomes. MTB are affiliated with three classes of Proteobacteria phylum, Nitrospirae phylum, Omnitrophica phylum and probably with the candidate phylum Latescibacteria. The evolutionary origin and physiological diversity of MTB compared with other bacterial taxonomic groups remain to be illustrated. Here, we analysed the genome of the marine magneto-ovoid strain MO-1 and found that it is closely related to Magnetococcus marinus MC-1. Detailed analyses of the ribosomal proteins and whole proteomes of 390 genomes reveal that, among the Proteobacteria analysed, only MO-1 and MC-1 have coding sequences (CDSs) with a similarly high proportion of origins from Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria. Interestingly, a comparative metabolic network analysis with anoxic network enzymes from sequenced MTB and non-MTB successfully allows the eventual prediction of an organism with a metabolic profile compatible for magnetosome production. Altogether, our genomic analysis reveals multiple origins of MO-1 and M. marinus MC-1 genomes and suggests a metabolism-restriction model for explaining whether a bacterium could become an MTB upon acquisition of magnetosome encoding genes.

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