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Nat Commun. 2016 Sep 7;7:12662. doi: 10.1038/ncomms12662.

Ectomycorrhizal ecology is imprinted in the genome of the dominant symbiotic fungus Cenococcum geophilum.

Author information

1
Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Forest Dynamics, Zuercherstrasse 111, 8903 Birmensdorf, Switzerland.
2
INRA, UMR INRA-Université de Lorraine 'Interactions Arbres/Microorganismes', Laboratoire d'Excellence ARBRE, INRA-Nancy, 54280 Champenoux, France.
3
US Department of Energy Joint Genome Institute (JGI), Walnut Creek, California 94598, USA.
4
Microbiology, Department of Biology, Utrecht University, 3508 TB Utrecht, The Netherlands.
5
University of Bremen, Botany, Leobenerstr. 2, 28359 Bremen, Germany.
6
CBS-KNAW Fungal Biodiversity Centre, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands.
7
Institute of Microbiology and Genetics, Department of Genetics of Eukaryotic Microorganisms, Georg-August-University Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.
8
Göttingen Center for Molecular Biosciences (GZMB), Georg-August-University Göttingen, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.
9
Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 USA.
10
Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 7257, F-13288 Marseille, France.
11
Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, Aix-Marseille University, F-13288 Marseille, France.
12
INRA, USC 1408 AFMB, F-13288 Marseille, France.
13
Department of Biological Sciences, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589, Saudi Arabia.
14
Department of Botany and Plant Pathology, Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon 97331 USA.

Abstract

The most frequently encountered symbiont on tree roots is the ascomycete Cenococcum geophilum, the only mycorrhizal species within the largest fungal class Dothideomycetes, a class known for devastating plant pathogens. Here we show that the symbiotic genomic idiosyncrasies of ectomycorrhizal basidiomycetes are also present in C. geophilum with symbiosis-induced, taxon-specific genes of unknown function and reduced numbers of plant cell wall-degrading enzymes. C. geophilum still holds a significant set of genes in categories known to be involved in pathogenesis and shows an increased genome size due to transposable elements proliferation. Transcript profiling revealed a striking upregulation of membrane transporters, including aquaporin water channels and sugar transporters, and mycorrhiza-induced small secreted proteins (MiSSPs) in ectomycorrhiza compared with free-living mycelium. The frequency with which this symbiont is found on tree roots and its possible role in water and nutrient transport in symbiosis calls for further studies on mechanisms of host and environmental adaptation.

PMID:
27601008
PMCID:
PMC5023957
DOI:
10.1038/ncomms12662
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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