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PLoS One. 2015 Jun 2;10(6):e0118285. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0118285. eCollection 2015.

Genome and Transcriptome of Clostridium phytofermentans, Catalyst for the Direct Conversion of Plant Feedstocks to Fuels.

Author information

1
Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America.
2
Graduate Program in Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America; Institute for Cellular Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America.
3
Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA)-Genoscope, Unité Mixte de Recherche (UMR)-8030, National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), Evry, France.
4
Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America; Institute for Cellular Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America.
5
Department of Energy (DOE)- Joint Genome Institute, Genome Biology Program, Production Genomics Facility, Walnut Creek, California, United States of America.
6
Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Life Sciences Division, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, United States of America.
7
Architecture et Fonction des Macromolécules Biologiques, Unité mixte de recherche (UMR)-6098, National Center for Scientific Research (CNRS), and Universités d'Aix-Marseille I and II, Marseille, France.
8
Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America.
9
Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, United States of America.
10
Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America; Institute for Cellular Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America; Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America.
11
Department of Microbiology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America; Graduate Program in Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America; Institute for Cellular Engineering, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America; Graduate Program in Organismal and Evolutionary Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America; Department of Biology, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Abstract

Clostridium phytofermentans was isolated from forest soil and is distinguished by its capacity to directly ferment plant cell wall polysaccharides into ethanol as the primary product, suggesting that it possesses unusual catabolic pathways. The objective of the present study was to understand the molecular mechanisms of biomass conversion to ethanol in a single organism, Clostridium phytofermentans, by analyzing its complete genome and transcriptome during growth on plant carbohydrates. The saccharolytic versatility of C. phytofermentans is reflected in a diversity of genes encoding ATP-binding cassette sugar transporters and glycoside hydrolases, many of which may have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer. These genes are frequently organized as operons that may be controlled individually by the many transcriptional regulators identified in the genome. Preferential ethanol production may be due to high levels of expression of multiple ethanol dehydrogenases and additional pathways maximizing ethanol yield. The genome also encodes three different proteinaceous bacterial microcompartments with the capacity to compartmentalize pathways that divert fermentation intermediates to various products. These characteristics make C. phytofermentans an attractive resource for improving the efficiency and speed of biomass conversion to biofuels.

PMID:
26035711
PMCID:
PMC4452783
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pone.0118285
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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