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In Vivo. 2009 Sep-Oct;23(5):797-812.

Genetic determinants of cardiovascular disease: the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, paraoxonases, endothelin-1, nitric oxide synthase and adrenergic receptors.

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Departments of Nephrology, Hypertension and Family Medicine, Medical University of Lodz, Poland.


Apart from conventional risk factors such as cigarette smoking, obesity, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, physical inactivity and metabolic syndrome, a family history of coronary artery disease (CAD) seems to be important, especially in young people. Among the genes that may potentially influence the onset and the progression of CAD, there are those controlling the following: renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), adrenergic receptors, paraoxonases, endothelin and nitric oxide synthase. They may modulate the risk of disease onset, as well as its progression and patient prognosis. The unravelling of genetic determinants of CAD may be the first step towards a better understanding of the pathological process involved, the early identification of those at risk and individualizing treatment.

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