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Fundam Clin Pharmacol. 2007 Aug;21(4):399-410.

Clinical, structural and functional implications of mutations and polymorphisms in human NADPH P450 oxidoreductase.

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1
Department of Pediatrics Endocrinology, University Children's Hospital, Freiburgstrasse 15, 3010 Bern, Switzerland.

Abstract

Cytochrome P450 proteins are involved in metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics. In the endoplasmic reticulum a single nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) P450 oxidoreductase (POR) supplies electrons to all microsomal P450s for catalytic activity. POR is a flavoprotein that contains both flavin mononucleotide and flavin adenine dinucleotide as cofactors and uses NADPH as the source of electrons. We have recently reported a number of POR mutations in the patients with disordered steroidogenesis. In the first report we had described missense mutations (A287P, R457H, V492E, C569Y, and V608F) identified in four patients with defects in steroid production. Each POR variant was produced as recombinant N-27 form of the enzyme in bacteria and as full-length form in yeast. Membranes from bacteria or yeast expressing normal or variant POR were purified and their activities were characterized in cytochrome c and CYP17A1 assays. Later we have published a larger study that described a whole range of POR mutations and characterized the mutants/polymorphisms A115V, T142A, M263V, Y459H, A503V, G539R, L565P, R616X, V631I, and F646del from the sequencing of patient DNA. We also studied POR variants Y181D, P228L, R316W, G413S, and G504R that were available in public databases or published literature. Three-dimensional structure of rat POR is known and we have used this structure to deduce the structure-function correlation of POR mutations in human. The missense mutations found in patients with disordered steroidogenesis are generally in the co-factor binding and functionally important domains of POR and the apparent polymorphisms are found in regions with lesser structural importance. A variation in POR can alter the activity of all microsomal P450s, and therefore, can affect the metabolism of drugs and xenobiotics even when the P450s involved are otherwise normal. It is important to study the genetic and biochemical basis of POR variants in human population to gain information about possible differences in P450 mediated reactions among the individuals carrying a variant or polymorphic form of POR that could impact their metabolism.

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