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Nature. 2006 May 4;441(7089):96-100.

Downstream nuclear events in brassinosteroid signalling.

Author information

1
Plant Biology Laboratory, The Salk Institute for Biological Studies, 10010 North Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

Abstract

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid hormones that control many aspects of plant growth and development. BRs bind to the plasma membrane receptor kinase BRI1, and act through a signalling pathway that involves a glycogen synthase kinase-3-like kinase (BIN2) and a serine/threonine phosphatase (BSU1). Previous models proposed that BIN2 negatively regulates BR signalling by controlling the stability and subcellular localization of the related transcription factors BES1 and BZR1 by phosphorylation, in a manner reminiscent of the canonical Wnt signalling pathway of metazoans. Here we present strong evidence for a different mode of regulation of BR signalling. We show that BES1 is localized constitutively to the nucleus, where its activity is modulated by nuclear-localized BIN2 kinase. BIN2-mediated phosphorylation of BES1 inhibits its DNA-binding activity on BR-responsive target promoters and its transcriptional activity through impaired multimerization. Our observations demonstrate that phosphorylation-dependent inhibition of DNA binding and trans-activation is the key primary mechanism of BES1 regulation.

PMID:
16672972
DOI:
10.1038/nature04681
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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