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Hypertens Res. 2003 Feb;26 Suppl:S129-34.

Variations of human adrenomedullin gene and its relation to cardiovascular diseases.

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Department of Hypertension and Cardiorenal Medicine, Dokkyo University School of Medicine, Mibu, Tochigi 321-0293, Japan.


The studies concerning the structure and variations of the human adrenomedullin (AM) gene are reviewed, and their relations to the gene function and genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases are discussed. The genomic human AM gene is composed of four exons, and the whole nucleotide sequence corresponding to mature AM resides in the fourth exon. In chromosomal sublocalization, the AM gene is located in the distal portion of the short arm of chromosome 11 (11p15.1-3). Analysis of the promoter region of the AM gene has revealed that two transcription factors, nuclear factor for interleukin-6 expression (NF-IL6) and activator protein 2 (AP-2), participate in the regulation of AM gene expression. It is surmised that NF-IL6 mediates inflammatory stimuli and AP-2 mediates signals of phospholipase C and protein kinase C activation. In addition to these factors, hypoxia induces AM gene expression via the hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) binding site. The 3'-end of the AM gene is flanked by a microsatellite marker of cytosine adenine (CA) repeats. In Japanese, there are four types of alleles with different CA-repeat numbers: 11, 13, 14 and 19. It is suggested that existence of the 19-repeat allele is associated with genetic predispositions to develop essential hypertension and diabetic nephropathy.

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