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J Sports Sci. 2017 Mar;35(5):410-418. doi: 10.1080/02640414.2016.1167934. Epub 2016 Apr 18.

Examining multidimensional sport-confidence in athletes and non-athlete sport performers.

Author information

a School of Physical Education , Osaka University of Health and Sport Sciences , Osaka , Japan.
b Department of Psychology , California State University , Northridge , CA , USA.
c The Office of the Governor, California State Board of Education , Sacramento , CA , USA.
d Department of Kinesiology and Health , Miami University , Oxford , OH , USA.


Sport-confidence is considered a critical success factor for sport performers at all levels. Researchers have suggested that sport-confidence is a multidimensional rather than a unidimensional construct, and the sport-confidence model identified three types of sport-confidence (i.e., physical skills and training, cognitive efficiency, and resilience) that are important for success in sport. However, such multidimensionality of sport-confidence and its measurement have not been fully examined. On a large sample of sport performers with varied skill levels and characteristics, the purpose of the present study was to examine the three-factor model of sport-confidence. We tested the measurement invariance of the Sport-Confidence Inventory across 512 athletes and 1170 non-athlete sport performers. Results from the multiple group model analysis showed that the three-factor model of sport-confidence fit better for the athlete sample than for the non-athlete sample. The results implicate that the three-factor model of sport-confidence model is suitable to athletes, though sport-confidence may appear more unidimensional for non-athletes. The use of the Sport-Confidence Inventory for non-athlete sport performers demands further consideration; however, the findings implicate that it could be a useful tool to assess sport-confidence of sport performers at any levels.


Self-efficacy; learning; psychological assessment; sport psychology

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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