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Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2002 Mar;31(1):307-27.

Extraintestinal manifestations of inflammatory bowel disease.

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Gastroenterology Division, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, 3-Ravdin Building, 3400 Spruce Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-4283, USA.


Numerous extraintestinal diseases have been associated with IBD. The role of the gastrointestinal tract in host response to the foreign antigens present in the gut makes the enteric immune system highly susceptible to any external perturbation to the system. Dysregulation of the enteric immune response results in pathology in various organs outside of the gut. The site-specific manifestations of this immune response are not understood fully. Better understanding of the pathogenesis of IBD and the complex interactions between the gut immune system and the extraintestinal systems would provide insights into the development of many of these extraintestinal manifestations. Much is unknown about the presence of cardiac, pulmonary, and hematologic diseases in patients with IBD. True association or coincidental presence of the diseases in these organ systems with IBD requires better delineation. An important consideration in all patients with IBD presenting with extraintestinal manifestations should be a careful search for medication-related complications.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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