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Complement Ther Med. 2013 Dec;21(6):689-96. doi: 10.1016/j.ctim.2013.08.017. Epub 2013 Sep 1.

Effects of music therapy on pain and anxiety in patients undergoing port catheter placement procedure.

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Department of Emergency, Gaziantep University, Medical School, Gaziantep, Turkey. Electronic address:



Patients scheduled to invasive medical procedures experience high levels of anxiety, which may lead to increased perceptions of pain and vital sign instability throughout.


To examine the effect of a music intervention (MI) on stress hormones, physiologic parameters, pain, and anxiety state before and during port catheter placement procedures (PCPPs).


We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled study in 100 oncology patients, who were randomly assigned to an MI group (n=50) or a control group (n=50). The effects of music were assessed by determination of serum cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) levels, heart and respiratory rate (HR, RR) and systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP), on arrival in the surgical intervention room, as well as immediately prior to and immediately after the PCPP, in both groups. Furthermore, pain and anxiety levels were identified using visual analogue scale and state-trait anxiety inventory scales.


On arrival, there were no differences between the patients in terms of serum cortisol and ACTH levels, HR, RR, SBP, DBP and anxiety levels. There were significant reductions in hormone levels (p<0.05 for all), HR (p<0.001), RR (p<0.001), SBP (p<0.05) and DBP (p<0.05), immediately prior to and immediately after the PCPP in participants in the MI group compared to those in the control group. Furthermore, music led to a significant reduction in pain (p<0.05) and anxiety scores (p<0.05) in the MI group compared to control group.


During invasive medical procedures, MI significantly decreases stress hormone levels, physiological parameters, acute procedural pain and anxiety.


Anxiety; Invasive medical procedures; Music intervention; Pain; Stress hormones

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