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Int J Pharm. 2002 May 15;238(1-2):77-92.

Biocompatible stabilizers in the preparation of PLGA nanoparticles: a factorial design study.

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Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology and Biopharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Antwerp (Wilrijk), Belgium.


Poly(lactic-co-glycolic-acid) nanoparticles are often produced using the w/o/w emulsification solvent evaporation method. In most cases poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is used as stabilizer of the emulsion. The goal of this study was to compare a series of polymers to PVA in a 2(2) full factorial design study. The influence of the concentration of PVA and the polymers tested on particle size and zeta potential value was evaluated before and after freeze-drying of the prepared particles. Nanoparticles were obtained with most polymers when they were used in combination with PVA. Leaving PVA out of the formulation, however, increased the size of the particles over 1 microm. Two exceptions are poloxamer and carbopol, which can be considered as valuable alternatives to PVA. Zeta potential values were usually slightly negative, the most extreme zeta potential values were measured when poloxamer and carbopol were employed. The use of gelatin type A made it possible to achieve positive values. The original 2(2) full factorial design study was further expanded to a central composite design for poloxamer and carbopol, in order to fit the measured data to a quadratic model and to calculate response surfaces.

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