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2.
Clin Chem. 2005 Feb;51(2):376-85. Epub 2004 Dec 8.

Amitriptyline or not, that is the question: pharmacogenetic testing of CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 identifies patients with low or high risk for side effects in amitriptyline therapy.

Author information

1
Institut für Klinische Chemie und Pathobiochemie, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany. W.Steimer@gmx.de

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Amitriptyline has been replaced in many countries by alternative and more expensive drugs based on claims of improved tolerability and toxicity and despite slightly reduced efficacy. Preliminary studies indicate that adverse effects could be linked to polymorphisms of drug-metabolizing enzymes, but information on their clinical impact remains scanty and includes mainly case reports. We conducted a prospective blinded two-center study seeking correlations between CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 genotypes, drug concentrations, adverse events, and therapy response.

METHODS:

Fifty Caucasian inpatients with at least medium-grade depressive disorder received amitriptyline at a fixed dose of 75 mg twice a day. Blood samples for concentration monitoring of amitriptyline and nortriptyline were taken weekly until discharge along with evaluations of depression (Hamilton Depression Scale and Clinical Global Impression Scale) and side effect (Dosage Record and Treatment Emergent Symptoms Scale; DOTES) scores.

RESULTS:

In a ROC analysis, nortriptyline but not amitriptyline concentrations correlated with side effects (DOTES sum score >or=5; area under the curve, 0.733; P = 0.008). Carriers of two functional CYP2D6 alleles had a significantly lower risk of side effects than carriers of only one functional allele (12.1% vs 76.5%; P = 0.00001). The lowest risk was observed for carriers of two functional CYP2D6 alleles combined with only one functional CYP2C19 allele [0 of 13 (0%) vs 9 of 11 (81.8%) for the high-risk group; P = 0.00004]. We found no correlations between drug concentrations or genotypes and therapeutic response.

CONCLUSIONS:

Combined pharmacogenetic testing for CYP2D6 and CYP2C19 identifies patients with low risk for side effects in amitriptyline therapy and could possibly be used to individualize antidepressive regimens and reduce treatment cost. Identification of genotypes associated with slightly reduced intermediate metabolism may be more important than currently anticipated. It could also be the key to demonstrating cost-effectiveness for CYP2D6 genotyping in critical dose drugs.

PMID:
15590749
DOI:
10.1373/clinchem.2004.041327
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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3.
Clin Chem. 2004 Sep;50(9):1623-33. Epub 2004 Jun 17.

Allele-specific change of concentration and functional gene dose for the prediction of steady-state serum concentrations of amitriptyline and nortriptyline in CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 extensive and intermediate metabolizers.

Author information

1
Institut für Klinische Chemie und Pathobiochemie, Technische Universität München, Munich, Germany. Steimer@KlinChem.med.TU-Muenchen.de

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Recently, new polymorphisms were described in connection with intermediate and ultrarapid CYP2D6 metabolism. These may allow a much desired prediction of metabolic activity within the extensive metabolizer group. The functional consequences are still being discussed with few data available for clinical patients.

METHODS:

We conducted a prospective, blinded two-center study seeking correlations between CYP2C19 (*2,*3, and *4; conventional PCR) and CYP2D6 genotypes (*1 to *10, *35, and *41; real-time and multiplex PCR) and drug concentrations (Emit and HPLC) in 50 Caucasians receiving amitriptyline (AT; 75 mg twice a day).

RESULTS:

Eighteen CYP2C19 heterozygotes (*1/*2) had higher AT (P = 0.033) and lower nortriptyline (NT; P = 0.059) concentrations than 30 homozygotes (*1/*1). For CYP2D6, we calculated two new indices, i.e., the allele-specific change of concentration on identical background (ASCOC) and a quantitative functional gene dose. The ASCOC describes the change in NT concentration attributable to a mutant allele compared with the wild type. We found significantly higher concentrations for alleles *4 (95.6%; P <0.0001), *10 (63.3%; P <0.001), and *41 (39.8%; P <0.0001) but not for *2 and *35. Assigning of semiquantitative gene doses of 0, 0.5, or 1 to each allele instead of applying the current classification system (predicted phenotypes: 3 intermediate metabolizers, 46 extensive metabolizers, and 1 ultrarapid metabolizer) produced significant NT concentration differences: gene doses of 0.5 (n =3), 1 (n = 14), 1.5 (n = 11), 2 (n = 21) and 3 (n = 1; P <0.00001).

CONCLUSIONS:

AT and NT concentrations can be predicted within the group of CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers. The ASCOC provides substantial advantages compared with current methods of analysis. CYP2D6 but not CYP2C19 correlates with the sum of both concentrations used to guide AT therapy.

PMID:
15205367
DOI:
10.1373/clinchem.2003.030825
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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