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Ann Transl Med. 2016 Jul;4(13):258. doi: 10.21037/atm.2016.06.36.

Prognostic biomarkers in acute coronary syndrome.

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Section of Clinical Biochemistry, University of Verona, Verona, Italy ;
Geriatric Medicine Division, Ospedale Mater Salutis, Legnago, Verona, Italy.


The acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is a leading cause of death around the globe. Beside a still high mortality rate, additional complications of ACS include arrhythmias, left ventricular mural thrombus, cardiac fibrosis, heart failure (HF), cardiogenic shock, mitral valve dysfunction, aneurysms, up to cardiac rupture. Despite many prognostic tools have been developed over the past decades, efforts are still ongoing to identify reliable and predictive biomarkers, which may help predict the prognosis of these patients and especially the risk of HF. Recent evidence suggests that the value of a discrete number of biomarkers of myocardial fibrosis, namely the soluble form of suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (sST2) and galectin-3 (GAL-3), may be predictive of HF and death in patients with ACS. Interestingly, the already promising predictive value of these biomarkers when measured alone was shown to be consistently magnified when combined with other and well-established cardiac biomarkers such natriuretic peptides and cardiac troponins. This article is hence aimed to review the current knowledge about cardiac biomarkers of fibrosis and adverse remodeling.


Acute coronary syndrome (ACS); galectin-3 (GAL-3); growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15); prognostic biomarkers; suppression of tumorigenicity 2 (ST-2)

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