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Psychol Med. 2014 Jul;44(9):1825-34. doi: 10.1017/S0033291713002584. Epub 2013 Nov 1.

Temporal discounting in major depressive disorder.

Author information

1
School of Medicine, Neuroscience and Psychiatry Unit,University of Manchester and Manchester Academic Health Science Centre,Manchester,UK.
2
Department of Psychiatry,University of Cambridge, and MRC Wellcome Trust Behavioural and Clinical Neuroscience Institute,Cambridge,UK.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with abnormalities in financial reward processing. Previous research suggests that patients with MDD show reduced sensitivity to frequency of financial rewards. However, there is a lack of conclusive evidence from studies investigating the evaluation of financial rewards over time, an important aspect of reward processing that influences the way people plan long-term investments. Beck's cognitive model posits that patients with MDD hold a negative view of the future that may influence the amount of resources patients are willing to invest into their future selves.

METHOD:

We administered a delay discounting task to 82 participants: 29 healthy controls, 29 unmedicated participants with fully remitted MDD (rMDD) and 24 participants with current MDD (11 on medication).

RESULTS:

Patients with current MDD, relative to remitted patients and healthy subjects, discounted large-sized future rewards at a significantly higher rate and were insensitive to changes in reward size from medium to large. There was a main effect of clinical group on discounting rates for large-sized rewards, and discounting rates for large-sized rewards correlated with severity of depressive symptoms, particularly hopelessness.

CONCLUSIONS:

Higher discounting of delayed rewards in MDD seems to be state dependent and may be a reflection of depressive symptoms, specifically hopelessness. Discounting distant rewards at a higher rate means that patients are more likely to choose immediate financial options. Such impairments related to long-term investment planning may be important for understanding value-based decision making in MDD, and contribute to ongoing functional impairment.

PMID:
24176142
PMCID:
PMC4035754
DOI:
10.1017/S0033291713002584
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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