Format
Sort by
Items per page

Send to

Choose Destination

Search results

Items: 1 to 20 of 147169

  • Filters activated: Field: Title Word. Clear all
1.
J Plant Physiol. 2019 May 16;238:12-19. doi: 10.1016/j.jplph.2019.05.002. [Epub ahead of print]

24-Epibrassinolide promotes arsenic tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana L. by altering stress responses at biochemical and molecular level.

Author information

1
Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Faculty of Agriculture, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University, Çanakkale, Turkey. Electronic address: yoncasurgun@gmail.com.
2
Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Faculty of Science, Bartın University, Bartın, Turkey. Electronic address: fahriyezmhr@hotmail.com.

Abstract

In this study, the effect of 24-Epibrassinolide (EBL) on antioxidant system in Arabidopsis thaliana were investigated under arsenate [As(V)] stress. The enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), total antioxidant status, malondialdehyde (MDA) level and free proline content, as well as the expression levels of SOD isoforms (Cu-ZnSODs, FeSODs and MnSOD), CAT isoforms (CAT1, CAT2 and CAT3), some heat shock proteins (Hsp70-4 and Hsp90-1) and proline biosynthesis (P5CS1 and P5CS2) genes were determined in rosette leaves of eight-week old plants under exposure of 100 and 200 μM As(V) and/or 1 μM EBL treatments for 24 h. Total SOD and CAT enzyme activities increased as a result of 100 μM As(V) + EBL treatments compared to 100 μM As(V) treatment. Total antioxidant and proline levels increased in plants subjected to As(V), and the treatment of EBL together with stress caused further increase. As the MDA level increased in As-treated plants, 100 μM As(V) + EBL treatment decreased MDA level. Transcript levels of CSD1, CSD2, FSD1, FSD2, MSD1 and CAT2 genes increased as a result of combined treatment of EBL and As(V) compared to control and alone stress treatments (except CSD1 gene). Expression level of CSD3, CAT1 and CAT3 genes were downregulated in response to As(V) and/or EBL treatments. EBL application alone and in combination with As(V) elevated the expression level of P5CS1 gene dramatically. Treatment with 100 μM As(V) and EBL increased the transcript level of Hsp70-4 and Hsp90-1 genes in leaves compared to 100 μM As(V) treatment. To our best knowledge, this is the first detailed study to evaluate the improving effect of EBL on antioxidant defense system at biochemical and transcriptional level in A. thaliana plants under As(V) stress.

KEYWORDS:

24-Epibrassinolide; Antioxidant enzymes; Arabidopsis thaliana; Arsenic stress; Gene expression; Proline

2.
J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2019 May 15;173:75-85. doi: 10.1016/j.jpba.2019.05.028. [Epub ahead of print]

Influence of different extraction techniques on the chemical profile and biological properties of Anthemis cotula L.: Multifunctional aspects for potential pharmaceutical applications.

Author information

1
DAFNAE, Department of Agronomy, Food, Natural Resources, Animals and Environment, Agripolis Campus, University of Padova, 35020 Legnaro, PD, Italy.
2
Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological Sciences, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 5, 35131 Padova, Italy.
3
Department of Biology, Science Faculty, Selcuk University, Campus, Konya, Turkey. Electronic address: biyologzengin@yahoo.com.
4
Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Pharmacy Faculty, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey.
5
Faculty of Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bulevar Cara Lazara 1, 21000, Novi Sad, Serbia.
6
Institute for Food Technology, University of Novi Sad, Bulevar Cara Lazara 1, 21000, Novi Sad, Serbia.
7
Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Mauritius, Réduit, Mauritius.
8
Department of Biology, Science Faculty, Selcuk University, Campus, Konya, Turkey.

Abstract

The phytochemical composition of different extracts obtained from stinking chamomile (Anthemis cotula L.) was investigated. Ethanol was used as solvent and accelerated solvent extraction (ASE), microwave assisted extraction (MAE), maceration, soxhlet extraction (SE), and ultrasound assisted extraction (UAE) were applied on plant material. Comparison of the phytochemical contents, antioxidant, and enzyme inhibitory properties were performed. The most abundant sesquiterpene in the extracts was anthecotuloide, while the most present phenolics were caffeoyl quinic acid, quercetin, and kaempferol derivatives. UAE extract was the most efficient in the extraction of sesquiterpenoids and polyphenols. Considering the assays on antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibition, ASE extract showed highest phenolic content (62.92 mg gallic acid equivalent/g extract). Likewise, this extract showed highest radical scavenging (103.44 mg trolox equivalent [TE]/g extract and 155.70 mg TE/g extract, for DPPH and ABTS assays respectively) and reducing power potential (435.32 and 317.89 mg TE/g extract, for CUPRAC and FRAP assays, respectively). The different extracts showed similar results in the enzyme inhibition assays suggesting that the extraction methods used have no effect on observed enzyme activities. Novelty of our findings are the inhibitory action of the ethanol extract of A. cotula aerial parts on key enzymes associated with Alzheimer's disease (acetyl cholinesterase, butyryl cholinesterase), type 2 diabetes (α-amylase, α-glucosidase), and skin hyperpigmentation disorders (tyrosinase). Data collected from the present work further appraises the multiple potential biological properties of stinking chamomile suggesting the need for further investigation on its constituents.

KEYWORDS:

(1)H-NMR; Anthecotuloide; Anthemis cotula; Antioxidant; Enzyme inhibitor; Sesquiterpenoids

3.
Biosens Bioelectron. 2019 May 15;139:111327. doi: 10.1016/j.bios.2019.111327. [Epub ahead of print]

Hierarchical Cu@CuxO nanowires arrays-coated gold nanodots as a highly sensitive self-supported electrocatalyst for L-cysteine oxidation.

Author information

1
Advanced Materials Institute of BIN Convergence (BK21 Plus Global), Department of BIN Convergence Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 54896, Republic of Korea.
2
Advanced Materials Institute of BIN Convergence (BK21 Plus Global), Department of BIN Convergence Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 54896, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: nhk@chonbuk.ac.kr.
3
Advanced Materials Institute of BIN Convergence (BK21 Plus Global), Department of BIN Convergence Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 54896, Republic of Korea; Center for Carbon Composite Materials, Department of Polymer & Nano Science and Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 54896, Republic of Korea. Electronic address: jhl@chonbuk.ac.kr.

Abstract

The sensitivity, selectivity, and stability of an electrochemical sensor for detecting small biomolecules can be significantly upgraded through properly controlling the morphology and chemical structure of electrocatalyst. Herein, we fabricated a unique hierarchical nanostructure based on Cu@CuxO nanowires (NWs) array uniformly depositing with a layer of gold nanoparticles (2-3 nm) through a simple electroless deposition process. The Au-Cu@CuxO NWs hybrid was successfully applied as a novel binder-free self-supported biosensor towards L-cysteine detection with low limit of detection (1.25 μM), wide linear detection range (1.25 μM-1.94 mM), long-term stability (four weeks), and excellent selectivity. In addition, the hybrid-based sensor accurately detected L-cysteine in real samples. It was found that the obtained nanostructure with the formation of strong interaction between Au and Cu phase produces synergistic effects, which improve exposed electroactive site number, accelerate charge transfer rate, and increase surface area, thereby boosting the sensing performance. The results open a potential way to develop electrochemical sensor for efficiently detecting not only L-cysteine but also other small molecules with high sensitivity, accuracy, stability, and cost-effectiveness in health care and disease diagnosis.

KEYWORDS:

Copper-copper oxide nanowires; Electrocatalyst; Electrochemical biosensor; Gold nanoparticle layer

4.
Bone. 2019 May 20. pii: S8756-3282(19)30207-8. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2019.05.024. [Epub ahead of print]

The CaV1.2 L-type calcium channel regulates bone homeostasis in the middle and inner ear.

Author information

1
Cardiovascular Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, 413 East 69th st., New York, NY 10021, USA. Electronic address: chc2076@med.cornell.edu.
2
Howard Hughes Medical Institute and Laboratory of Sensory Neuroscience, The Rockefeller University, 1230 York Avenue, New York, NY 10065, USA.
3
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Duke University School of Medicine, 450 Research Drive, Durham, NC 27710, USA; Department of Cell Biology, Duke University School of Medicine, 450 Research Drive, Durham, NC 27710, USA.
4
Mouse Behavioral and Neuroendocrine Analysis Core Facility, Duke University School of Medicine, 308 Research Drive, Durham, NC 27708, USA.
5
Harrington Discovery Institute, Innovation Support Center, 2103 Cornell Road, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA.
6
Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY 10021, USA; Research Division, Hospital for Special Surgery, New York, NY 10021, USA.
7
Cardiovascular Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, 413 East 69th st., New York, NY 10021, USA.

Abstract

Bone remodeling of the auditory ossicles and the otic capsule is highly restricted and tightly controlled by the osteoprotegerin (OPG)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-Β (RANK) system. In these bony structures, a pathological decrease in OPG expression stimulates osteoclast differentiation and excessive resorption followed by accrual of sclerotic bone, ultimately resulting in the development of otosclerosis, a leading cause of deafness in adults. Understanding the signaling pathways involved in maintaining OPG expression in the ear would shed light on the pathophysiology of otosclerosis and other ear bone-related diseases. We and others previously demonstrated that Ca2+ signaling through the L-type CaV1.2 Ca2+ channel positively regulates OPG expression and secretion in long bone osteoblasts and their precursor cells in vitro and in vivo. Whether CaV1.2 regulates OPG expression in ear bones has not been investigated. We drove expression of a gain-of-function CaV1.2 mutant channel (CaV1.2TS) using Col2a1-Cre, which we found to target osteochondral/osteoblast progenitors in the auditory ossicles and the otic capsule. Col2a1-Cre;CaV1.2TS mice displayed osteopetrosis of these bones shown by μCT 3D reconstruction, histological analysis, and lack of bone sculpting, findings similar to phenotypes seen in mice with an osteoclast defect. Consistent with those observations, we found that Col2a1-Cre;CaV1.2TS mutant mice showed reduced osteoclasts in the otic capsule, upregulated mRNA expression of Opg and Opg/Rankl ratio, and increased mRNA expression of osteoblast differentiation marker genes in the otic capsule, suggesting both an anti-catabolic and anabolic effect of CaV1.2TS mutant channel contributed to the observed morphological changes of the ear bones. Further, we found that Col2a1-Cre;CaV1.2TS mice experienced hearing loss and displayed defects of body balance in behavior tests, confirming that the CaV1.2-dependent Ca2+ influx affects bone structure in the ear and consequent hearing and vestibular functions. Together, these data support our hypothesis that Ca2+ influx through CaV1.2TS promotes OPG expression from osteoblasts, thereby affecting bone modeling/remodeling in the auditory ossicles and the otic capsule. These data provide insight into potential pathological mechanisms underlying perturbed OPG expression and otosclerosis.

KEYWORDS:

Ca(2+) signaling; Ca(V)1.2; Osteoclast; Osteoprotegerin; Otosclerosis

5.
Int J Biol Macromol. 2019 May 20. pii: S0141-8130(19)32257-3. doi: 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.05.118. [Epub ahead of print]

Characterization of an antibacterial wound dressing from basil seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) mucilage-ZnO nanocomposite.

Author information

1
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Bangkok 10520, Thailand.
2
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Bangkok 10520, Thailand; Advanced Materials Research Unit, Faculty of Science, King Mongkut's Institute of Technology Ladkrabang (KMITL), Bangkok 10520, Thailand. Electronic address: jutarat.si@kmitl.ac.th.

Abstract

The large water holding capacity of Basil Seed (Ocimum basilicum L.) Mucilage (BSM) gives it potential to produce a valuable polymer for water holding applications such as wound dressing. The objective of this research was to prepare a natural-based antibacterial wound dressing from BSM by freeze-drying. Various contents of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NP) were incorporated as an antibacterial agent. BSM hydrogel sponge showed considerable porosity and degree of swelling. From FTIR analysis, hydrogen bond and electrostatic interaction between BSM molecules and ZnO-NP were confirmed. SEM images revealed an interconnecting open-cell structure of pores in the BSM hydrogel sponge with a good distribution of ZnO-NP. Moreover, increase in ZnO-NP content improved the mechanical properties (stress at maximum load 8.9 MPa, Young's modulus 151 MPa and strain at maximum load 51%), thermal properties, water retention capacity and antibacterial activity. Cytotoxicity and cell adhesion studies of BSM hydrogel sponge indicated non-cytotoxicity and non-adherent nature of the sponge.

KEYWORDS:

Basil seed mucilage; Wound dressing; ZnO nanoparticles

6.
Cryobiology. 2019 May 20. pii: S0011-2240(19)30014-8. doi: 10.1016/j.cryobiol.2019.05.009. [Epub ahead of print]

Effect of different concentrations of l-carnitine in extender for semen cryopreservation in sheep.

Author information

1
Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Vital Brasil Filho, 64, Niterói, RJ, 24320-340, Brazil.
2
Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade do Grande Rio, Rua Professor José de Souza Herdy, 1160, Duque de Caxias, RJ, 25071-202, Brazil.
3
Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Rodovia BR 465, Km 07, Seropédica, RJ, 23890-000, Brazil.
4
Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rua Vital Brasil Filho, 64, Niterói, RJ, 24320-340, Brazil. Electronic address: joannavet@gmail.com.

Abstract

This study assessed the effect of l-carnitine (LC) in sheep semen extenders containing or not egg yolk for cryopreservation in sheep. Two extenders (TRIS-egg yolk or the commercial optiXcell™ IMV medium) were used, totaling six groups: IMV - (0, 5 and 10 mM LC) and TRIS - (0, 5 and 10 mM LC). After the freezing-thawing process and throughout incubation at 38 °C for up to 3 h, several parameters were evaluated: sperm kinetics, hypoosmotic, plasma membrane integrity, capacitation status and lipid peroxidation level. The supplementation of either 5 or 10 mM LC randomly affected some parameters and, overall, TRIS was superior (P < 0.05) than IMV extender. In the LC-groups, IMV had greater (P < 0.05) oxidative stress than TRIS. In conclusion, although LC affected isolated parameters, its supplementation in semen extender had no consistently beneficial effect on freezing-thawing ram sperm.

KEYWORDS:

Andrology; Antioxidant; CASA; Hypoosmotic; Lipid peroxidation; Ovis aries; Oxidative stress; Semen preservation

7.
PLoS One. 2019 May 23;14(5):e0217300. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0217300. eCollection 2019.

Altered expression of ionotropic L-Glutamate receptors in aged sensory neurons of Aplysia californica.

Author information

1
Department of Marine Biology and Ecology, University of Miami Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science, Miami, FL, United States of America.
2
Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas, Denton, TX, United States of America.

Abstract

The simplified nervous system of Aplysia californica (Aplysia) allows for detailed studies of physiological and molecular changes in small sets of neurons. Sensory neurons of the biting and tail withdrawal reflexes are glutamatergic and show reduced L-Glutamate current density in aged animals, making them a good candidate to study age-related changes in glutamatergic responses. To examine if changes in ionotropic L-Glu receptor (iGluR) transcription underlie reduced physiology, mRNA expression of iGluR was quantified in two sensory neuron clusters of two cohorts of Aplysia at both sexual maturity (~8 months) and advanced age (~12 months). Sensory neuron aging resulted in a significant overall decrease in expression of iGluR subunits in both sensory neuron clusters and cohorts. Although the individual subunits differentially expressed varied between sensory neuron clusters and different cohorts of animals, all differentially expressed subunits were downregulated, with no subunits showing significantly increased expression with age. Overall declines in transcript expression suggest that age-related declines in L-Glu responsiveness in Aplysia sensory neurons could be linked to overall declines in iGluR expression, rather than dysregulation of specific subunits. In both sensory neuron clusters tested the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subtype was expressed at significantly greater levels than other iGluR subtypes, suggesting an in vivo role for NMDAR-like receptors in Aplysia sensory neurons.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors have declared no competing interests exist.

8.
Mitochondrial DNA A DNA Mapp Seq Anal. 2019 May 23:1-10. doi: 10.1080/24701394.2019.1616701. [Epub ahead of print]

Mutation pressure and natural selection on codon usage in chloroplast genes of two species in Pisum L. (Fabaceae: Faboideae).

Author information

1
a Department of Life Science and Bioinformatics , Assam University , Silchar , India.
2
b Department of Zoology , Moinul Hoque Choudhury Memorial Science College , Algapur , India.
3
c Department of Biotechnology , Assam University , Silchar , India.

Abstract

This study was attempted to focus on the pattern of codon usage bias (CUB) of chloroplast genes in two species of Pisum viz. P. fulvum and P. sativum and to identify the factors which influence CUB. Bioinformatic tools were used to understand codon usage pattern in the protein-coding sequences of Pisum chloroplast genomes. It was found that GC content was lower than AT content in the genes. Low synonymous codon usage order (SCUO) values of genes indicated low CUB in chloroplast genes of Pisum species. Heatmaps showed positive correlations of GC3 with all the GC and AT ending codons. Neutrality plot analysis revealed that natural selection might have played a prominent role over mutation pressure in sculpturing the CUB of chloroplast genes in these two taxa. Positive correlation between SCUO and mRNA free energy (mFE) suggested that higher energy release by entire mRNA was related to high degree of CUB. Further, highly significant (p < .01) negative correlation was found between parameters in pair i.e. mFE-GC, mFE-GC1, mFE-GC2 and mFE for entire mRNA-GC3. This pointed out that higher GC content might have influenced lesser energy release by mRNA molecules of chloroplast genes.

KEYWORDS:

; Codon usage bias; Fabaceae; chloroplast gene

9.
J Integr Plant Biol. 2019 May 23. doi: 10.1111/jipb.12842. [Epub ahead of print]

The involvement of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase TaPUB1 in salt stress tolerance.

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, Shandong Key Laboratory of Crop Biology, College of Life Sciences, Shandong Agricultural University, Tai'an, 271018, China.
2
College of Life Sciences, Zaozhuang University, Zaozhuang, 277000, China.

Abstract

U-box E3 ubiquitin ligases play important roles in the ubiquitin/26S proteasome machinery and in abiotic stress responses. TaPUB1-overexpressing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were generated to evaluate its function in salt tolerance. These plants were more salt stress tolerance during seedling and flowering stages, whereas the TaPUB1-RNAi-mediated knock-down transgenic wheat showed more salt stress sensitivity than the wild type (WT). TaPUB1 overexpression up-regulated the expression of genes related to ion channels and increased the net root Na+ efflux, but decreased the net K+ efflux and H+ influx, thereby maintaining a low cytosolic Na+ /K+ ratio, compared with the WT. However, RNAi-mediated knock-down plants showed the opposite response to salt stress. TaPUB1 could induce the expression of some genes that improved the antioxidant capacity of plants under salt stress. TaPUB1 also interacted with TaMP (Triticum aestivum.α-mannosidase protein), a regulator playing an important role in salt response in yeast and in plants. Thus, low cytosolic Na+ /K+ ratios and better antioxidant enzyme activities could be maintained in wheat with overexpression of TaPUB1 under salt stress. Therefore, we conclude that the U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase TaPUB1 positively regulates salt stress tolerance in wheat. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

10.
Phytother Res. 2019 May 22. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6374. [Epub ahead of print]

Prenylated flavonoid-standardized extract from seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L. activated fat browning in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

Author information

1
School of Pharmacy, Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Shanghai, China.

Abstract

We investigated the effects of the prenylated flavonoid-standardized extract (PFE) from the seeds of Psoralea corylifolia L. on countering obesity, which increases energy expenditure and stimulates thermogenesis in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (sWAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT). For 12 weeks, C57BL/6 mice were fed a controlled high-fat diet (HFD) or HFDs with 0.2% or 0.5% w/w PFE. In vitro, the differentiation of 3 T3-L1 cells was used to elicit thermogenesis in the presence of PFE. PFE obviously reduced body weight and fat mass in a dose-dependent manner, increased energy expenditure, improved insulin sensitivity, and prevented hepatic steatosis by increasing lipid oxidation and secretion in HFD-fed mice. Moreover, PFE induced clear browning in sWAT, significantly increased phosphorylation of AMPKα1/2 and p38, increased BAT activity and the differentiation of 3 T3-L1 by increasing the expression of uncoupling protein 1 and other thermogenic genes. Our study showed that PFE prevented obesity by increasing browning and activating thermogenic genes in sWAT and BAT, improving glucose homeostasis, and protecting hepatic steatosis.

KEYWORDS:

Psoralea corylifolia L; anti-obesity; brown adipose tissue; prenylated flavonoids; white adipose tissue

PMID:
31119811
DOI:
10.1002/ptr.6374
Icon for Wiley
11.
Biotechnol Appl Biochem. 2019 May 22. doi: 10.1002/bab.1768. [Epub ahead of print]

Graphene oxide-L-arginine nano-gel: a pH-sensitive fluorouracil nanocarrier.

Author information

1
Department of Biotechnology, School of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
2
Department of Life Science Engineering, Faculty of New Science and Technologies, University of Tehran, Tehran, Iran.
3
Department of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran, Iran.
4
Protein Research Centre, Shahid Beheshti University, GC, Velenjak, Tehran, Iran.
5
Marquette University School of Dentistry, Milwaukee, WI, USA.
6
Department of Chemical Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, Iran.
7
Department of Advanced Medical Sciences and Technologies, School of Paramedicine, Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.
8
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Valisar, Tehran Branch, Technical and Vocational University (TVU), Tehran, Iran.

Abstract

Nowadays, putting forward an accurate cancer therapy method with minimal side effects is an important topic of research. Nanostructures, for their ability in controlled and targeted drug release on specific cells, are critical materials in this field. In this study, a pH-sensitive graphene oxide- L-arginine nanogel was synthesized to carry and release 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). Optimized condition by statistical analysis, based on the maximum relative viscosity of nano-gel was evaluated 5.489 for the concentration of L-arginine and 2.404 for pH. The prepared nanogels were characterized using SEM and TEM images, and FTIR analysis. Cytotoxicity was assessed using the SRB assay on MCF-7 breast cancer cells. The fluorouracil release was measured by the dialysis bag method, UV spectrophotometry and fluorouracil calibration diagram. Results proved the successful controlled release of fluorouracil at pH = 5.4 and the beneficial role of graphene-oxide- L-arginine- fluorouracil nanogel in eliminating cancer cells.

KEYWORDS:

L-arginine; drug delivery; fluorouracil; graphene-oxide; nanogel

PMID:
31119802
DOI:
10.1002/bab.1768
Icon for Wiley
12.
Methods Mol Biol. 2019;1978:155-165. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9236-2_10.

Quantification of D- and L-2-Hydroxyglutarate in Drosophila melanogaster Tissue Samples Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

Author information

1
Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA.
2
Department of Biology, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, USA. jtenness@indiana.edu.

Abstract

The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has emerged as an ideal system in which to study 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) metabolism. Unlike many mammalian tissues and cell lines, which primarily accumulate D- or L-2HG as the result of genetic mutations or metabolic stress, Drosophila larvae accumulate high concentrations of L-2HG during normal larval growth. As a result, flies represent one of the few model systems that allows for studies of endogenous L-2HG metabolism. Moreover, the Drosophila genome not only encodes key enzymes involved in the synthesis and degradation of D-2HG, but the fly has also been used as to investigate the in vivo effects of oncogenic isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) mutations. All of these studies, however, rely on mass spectrometry-based methods to distinguish between the D- and L-2HG enantiomers. While such approaches are common among labs studying mammalian cell culture, few Drosophila studies have attempted to resolve and measure the individual 2HG enantiomers. Here we describe a highly reproducible gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)-based protocol that allows for quantitative measurements of both 2HG enantiomers in Drosophila homogenates.

KEYWORDS:

2-Hydroxyglutarate; Drosophila; Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; Metabolomics; Oncometabolite

13.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2019 May 22. doi: 10.1007/s11356-019-05209-8. [Epub ahead of print]

Nickel tolerance and toxicity mechanisms in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum L. as revealed by Ni localization and ligand environment studies.

Author information

1
Faculty of Sciences Tunis, Campus Universitaire Tunis - El Manar, 2092, Tunis, Tunisia.
2
Laboratory of Extremophile Plants, Biotechnology Center of Borj Cédria, Box 901, 20150, Hammam-Lif, Tunis, Tunisia.
3
Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Jamnikarjeva 101, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
4
Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
5
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of Maribor, Smetanova 17, 2000, Maribor, Slovenia.
6
Faculty for Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, 1000, Ljubljana, Slovenia.
7
Laboratory of Extremophile Plants, Biotechnology Center of Borj Cédria, Box 901, 20150, Hammam-Lif, Tunis, Tunisia. tahar.ghnaya@gmail.com.
8
Higher Institute of Sciences and Techniques of Waters, University of Gabes, Erriadh City Campus - 6072 Zirig, Gabes, Tunisia. tahar.ghnaya@gmail.com.

Abstract

Halophytes are able to tolerate relatively high concentrations of hazardous metals in a growing substrate, what makes them suitable candidates for phytoremediation of metal-contaminated soils. In this work, we aimed to study the physiological responses of the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum L. to Ni, with main focus on Ni localization, compartmentation and ligand environment, to decipher Ni tolerance and toxicity mechanisms. Seedlings were grown in hydroponic nutrient solution containing 0, 25, 50 and 100 μM Ni as NiCl2 for 3 weeks. Ni localization in leaves was assessed by micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE). Ni ligand environment was studied by Ni K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). In addition, Ni-soluble, weakly bound/exchangeable and insoluble leaf tissue fractions were determined by sequential extraction. Results show that S. portulacastrum is able to tolerate up to ~ 500 μg g-1 dry weight (DW) of Ni in the shoots without significant growth reduction. At higher Ni concentrations (> 50 μM Ni in nutrient solution), chloroses were observed due to the accumulation of Ni in photosynthetically active chlorenchyma as revealed by micro-PIXE. Water storage tissue represented the main pool for Ni storage. Incorporation of Ni into Ca-oxalate crystals was also observed in some specimens, conferring tolerance to high leaf Ni concentrations. The majority of Ni (> 70%) was found in soluble tissue fraction. Ni K XANES revealed Ni bound mainly to O- (55%) and N-ligands (45%). Ni toxicity at higher Ni levels was associated with Ni binding to amino groups of proteins in cytosol of chlorenchyma and increased level of lipid peroxidation. Proline levels also increased at high Ni exposures and were associated with Ni-induced oxidative stress and alteration of water regime.

KEYWORDS:

MDA; Micro-PIXE; Soluble metal fraction; Stress; XANES; XAS

14.
EJNMMI Res. 2019 May 22;9(1):47. doi: 10.1186/s13550-019-0519-4.

PET imaging of hepatocellular carcinoma with anti-1-amino-3-[18F]fluorocyclobutanecarboxylic acid in comparison with L-[S-methyl-11C]methionine.

Author information

1
Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.
2
Biology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA.
3
Institute for Computational Biology, Cleveland, OH, USA.
4
Medical Oncology, Rowell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA.
5
Nuclear Medicine, Radiology, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA.
6
Pathology, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA.
7
Radiology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, USA. zxl11@case.edu.
8
Nuclear Medicine, Radiology, University Hospitals Cleveland Medical Center, Cleveland, OH, USA. zxl11@case.edu.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

[11C]methionine ([11C]Met) was used for cancer imaging based on upregulated amino acid transport and protein synthesis in different tumor types. However, the short half-life of 11C decay limited further clinical development of [11C]Met. Synthetic amino acid analog anti-1-amino-3-[18F]fluoro-cyclobutyl-1-carboxylic acid ([18F]FCABC) was developed and FDA-approved for PET imaging of recurrent prostate cancer. This study investigated "repurposed" [18F]FACBC for PET imaging of primary liver cancer such as hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in comparison with [11C]Met.

METHODS:

[11C]Met was synthesized in the lab, and [18F]FACBC was purchased from a commercial outlet. A clinically relevant animal model of spontaneously developed HCC in the woodchucks was used for PET imaging. Bioinformatics analysis was performed for the expression of amino acid transporters responsible for radiotracer uptake and validated by PCR. Dynamic PET scans of [11C]Met and [18F]FACBC were acquired within 1 week. Standardized uptake value (SUV) was calculated for regions of interest (ROIs) defined over HCC and a liver background region. H&E staining and immunohistochemical (IHC) staining were performed with harvested tissues post-imaging.

RESULTS:

Higher expression of ACST2 and LAT1 was found in HCC than in the surrounding liver tissues. PCR validated this differential expression. [11C]Met and [18F]FACBC displayed some differences in their uptake and retention in HCC. Both peaked in HCC with an SUV of 3.5 after 10 min post-injection. Met maintained a plateaued contrast uptake in HCC to that in the liver while [18F]FCABC declined in HCC and liver after peak uptake. The pathological assessment revealed the liver tumor as moderately differentiated similar to the human HCC and proliferative.

CONCLUSION:

Both [18F]FACBC and [11C]Met showed uptake in HCC through the use of a clinically relevant animal model of woodchuck HCC. The uptake and retention of [18F]FACBC and [11C]Met depend on their metabolism and also rely on the distribution of their principal amino acid transporters.

KEYWORDS:

Amino acid transporter; Hepatocellular carcinoma; PET imaging; Woodchuck model

15.
Environ Monit Assess. 2019 May 22;191(6):389. doi: 10.1007/s10661-019-7529-6.

Content of macronutrients in oat (Avena sativa L.) after remediation of soil polluted with cobalt.

Author information

1
Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Plac Łódzki 4, 10-727, Olsztyn, Poland.
2
Department of Environmental Chemistry, University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Plac Łódzki 4, 10-727, Olsztyn, Poland. miroslaw.wyszkowski@uwm.edu.pl.

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the remediation effect of various substances (manure, clay, charcoal, zeolite and calcium oxide) on limiting the influence of high cobalt doses (0, 20, 40, 80, 160 and 320 mg/kg of soil) on the content of macroelements in grain, straw and roots of oat. The doses of cobalt applied in this experiment as well as soil amendments such as manure, clay, charcoal, zeolite and calcium oxide had a significant effect on the content of the analysed macronutrients in grain, straw and roots of oat. In the series without any neutralising substances, the soil contamination with cobalt caused an increase in the content of nitrogen, phosphorus, sodium, calcium and, partly, potassium, in grain, straw and roots of oat. Among the neutralising substances tested, the most unambiguous effect was produced by manure, which raised the content of all macronutrients (except calcium and magnesium) in oat grain, straw and roots. The influence of the other substances on the content of macronutrients in oat plants was less equivocal. However, all of them, especially calcium oxide, tended to induce a decrease in the content of most macronutrients in grain, straw and roots of oat.

KEYWORDS:

Avena sativa L.; Cobalt; Macroelements; Soil amendments

16.
Theor Appl Genet. 2019 May 22. doi: 10.1007/s00122-019-03359-4. [Epub ahead of print]

Use of near-isogenic lines to precisely map and validate a major QTL for grain weight on chromosome 4AL in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

Author information

1
State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology/Key Laboratory of Crop Heterosis and Utilization, Ministry of Education/Beijing Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement/College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.
2
College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China.
3
State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology/Key Laboratory of Crop Heterosis and Utilization, Ministry of Education/Beijing Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement/College of Agronomy and Biotechnology, China Agricultural University, Beijing, 100193, China. penghuiru@cau.edu.cn.

Abstract

This study precisely mapped and validated a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) on chromosome 4AL for thousand-grain weight in wheat using multiple near-isogenic lines. Thousand-grain weight (TGW) is an essential yield component. Following the previous identification of a major QTL for TGW within the interval of 15.7 cM (92.7-108.4 cM) on chromosome 4AL using the Nongda3338 (ND3338)/Jingdong6 (JD6) doubled haploid population, the aim of this study was to perform more precise mapping and validate the genetic effect of the QTL. Multiple near-isogenic lines (NILs) were developed using ND3338 as the recurrent parent through marker-assisted selection. Based on five independent BC3F3:4 segregating populations derived from BC3F3 plants with different heterozygous segments for the target QTL site and the results of genotyping analysis performed using the Wheat660 K SNP array, it was possible to delimit the QTL region to a physical interval of approximately 6.5 Mb (677.11-683.61 Mb, IWGSC Ref Seq v1.0). Field trials across multiple environments showed that NILsJD6 had a consistent effect on increasing the TGW by 5.16-27.48% and decreasing the grain number per spike (GNS) by 3.98-32.91% compared to the corresponding NILsND3338, which exhibited locus-specific TGW-GNS trade-offs. Moreover, by using RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) of whole grains at 10 days after pollination stage of multiple NILs, we found that differentially expressed genes between the NIL pairs were significantly enriched for cell cycle and the replication of chromosome-related genes, hence affecting cell division and cell proliferation. Overall, our results provide a basis for map-based cloning of the major QTL and determining the mechanisms underlying TGW-GNS trade-offs in wheat, which would help to fine-tune these two components and maximize the grain yield for breeders.

17.
Cardiovasc Res. 2019 May 22. pii: cvz136. doi: 10.1093/cvr/cvz136. [Epub ahead of print]

An N-/L-Type Calcium Channel Blocker, Cilnidipine, Suppresses Autonomic, Electrical and Structural Remodeling Associated with Atrial Fibrillation.

Author information

1
Department of Medicine and Research Center Montreal Heart Institute and Université de Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada.
2
Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Japan.
3
Department of Cardiology, University Hospital of Saint-Étienne, University Jean Monnet, Saint-Étienne, France.
4
Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, McGill University Montreal, Canada.
5
Institute of Pharmacology, West German Heart and Vascular Center, Faculty of Medicine, University Duisburg-Essen, Essen, Germany.
6
IHU LIRYC and Fondation Bordeaux Université, Bordeaux, France.

Abstract

AIMS:

Autonomic dysfunction can promote atrial fibrillation (AF) and results from AF-related remodeling. N-type Ca2+-channels (NTCCs) at sympathetic-nerve terminals mediate Ca2+-entry that triggers neurotransmitter release. AF-associated remodeling plays an important role in AF pathophysiology but the effects of NTCC-inhibition on such remodeling is unknown. Here, we investigated the ability of a clinically available Ca2+-channel blocker (CCB) with NTCC blocking activity to suppress the arrhythmogenic effects of AF-promoting remodeling in dogs.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

Mongrel dogs were kept in AF by right-atrial tachypacing at 600 bpm. Four groups were studied under short-term AF (7 days): 1) Shams, instrumented but without tachypacing (n = 5); 2) a placebo group, tachypaced while receiving placebo (n = 6); 3) a control tachypacing group receiving nifedipine (10 mg orally twice-daily; n = 5), an L-type CCB; and 4) a cilnidipine group, subjected to tachypacing and treatment with cilnidipine (10 mg orally twice-daily; n = 7), an N-/L-type CCB. With cilnidipine-therapy, dogs with 1-week-AF showed significantly reduced autonomic changes reflected by heart-rate variability (decreases in RMSSD and pNN50) and plasma norepinephrine concentrations. In addition, cilnidipine-treated dogs had decreased extracellular-matrix gene expression versus nifedipine-dogs. As in previous work, atrial fibrosis had not yet developed after 1-week AF, so three additional groups were studied under longer-term AF (21 days): 1) Shams, instrumented without tachypacing or drug therapy (n = 8); 2) a placebo-group, tachypaced while receiving placebo (n = 8); 3) a cilnidipine-group, subjected to tachypacing during treatment with cilnidipine (10 mg twice-daily; n = 8). Cilnidipine attenuated 3-week-AF effects on AF duration and atrial conduction, and suppressed AF-induced increases in fibrous-tissue content, decreases in connexin-43 expression and reductions in sodium-channel expression.

CONCLUSIONS:

Cilnidipine, a commercially available NTCC-blocking drug, prevents AF-induced autonomic, electrical and structural remodeling, along with associated AF-promotion.

KEYWORDS:

Ca2+ channel blocker; N-type Ca2+ channel; atrial fibrillation; autonomic nervous system; cilnidipine; fibrosis

18.
Biomed Res Int. 2019 Apr 17;2019:6139785. doi: 10.1155/2019/6139785. eCollection 2019.

Reduction of Motion Artifacts in the Recovery of Undersampled DCE MR Images Using Data Binning and L+S Decomposition.

Author information

1
Department of Electrical Engineering Int. Islamic University, Islamabad, Pakistan.
2
Department of Computer Science, University of Saskatchewan, Canada.
3
Department of Electrical Engineering, Air University Islamabad, Pakistan.
4
British Malaysian Institute, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Abstract

Background:

Motion is a major source of blurring and ghosting in recovered MR images. It is more challenging in Dynamic Contrast Enhancement (DCE) MRI because motion effects and rapid intensity changes in contrast agent are difficult to distinguish from each other.

Material and Methods:

In this study, we have introduced a new technique to reduce the motion artifacts, based on data binning and low rank plus sparse (L+S) reconstruction method for DCE MRI. For Data binning, radial k-space data is acquired continuously using the golden-angle radial sampling pattern and grouped into various motion states or bins. The respiratory signal for binning is extracted directly from radially acquired k-space data. A compressed sensing- (CS-) based L+S matrix decomposition model is then used to reconstruct motion sorted DCE MR images. Undersampled free breathing 3D liver and abdominal DCE MR data sets are used to validate the proposed technique.

Results:

The performance of the technique is compared with conventional L+S decomposition qualitatively along with the image sharpness and structural similarity index. Recovered images are visually sharper and have better similarity with reference images.

Conclusion:

L+S decomposition provides improved MR images with data binning as preprocessing step in free breathing scenario. Data binning resolves the respiratory motion by dividing different respiratory positions in multiple bins. It also differentiates the respiratory motion and contrast agent (CA) variations. MR images recovered for each bin are better as compared to the method without data binning.

19.
Biomed Res Int. 2019 Apr 17;2019:4303215. doi: 10.1155/2019/4303215. eCollection 2019.

Leonurus cardiaca L. as a Source of Bioactive Compounds: An Update of the European Medicines Agency Assessment Report (2010).

Author information

1
University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 59 Mărăști Blvd., 011464, Bucharest, Romania.
2
National Institute for Research & Development in Chemistry and Petrochemistry - ICECHIM Bucharest, 202 Spl. Independentei, 060021, Bucharest, Romania.
3
University of Medicine and Pharmacy "Carol Davila", 37 Dionisie Lupu Str., 030167, Bucharest, Romania.

Abstract

Leonurus cardiaca L. (motherwort) is a perennial herb, native to Asia and southeastern Europe, with widespread global occurrence in present days. The plant was historically used as cardiotonic and for treating gynaecological afflictions (such as amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, menopausal anxiety, or postpartum depression). Although its use in oriental and occidental medicine is relatively well documented, the recent progress registered raises the need for an update of the Medicines Agency assessment report on Leonurus cardiaca L., herba (2010). The current study presents the progress made within the 2010-2018 timeframe regarding the potential applications and scientific evidences supporting the traditional use of motherwort, in the same time suggesting future research opportunities.

Publication type

Publication type

20.
J Clin Aesthet Dermatol. 2019 Apr;12(4):40-45. Epub 2019 Apr 1.

Randomized, Placebo-controlled Study of a Nutraceutical Based on Hyaluronic Acid, L-carnosine, and Methylsulfonylmethane in Facial Skin Aesthetics and Well-being.

Guaitolini E1,2,3, Cavezzi A1,2,3, Cocchi S1,2,3, Colucci R1,2,3, Urso SU1,2,3, Quinzi V1,2,3.

Author information

1
Drs. Guaitolini, Cavezzi, Colucci, Urso, and Quinzi are with Eurocenter Venalinfa in San Benedetto del Tronto (AP), Italy.
2
Drs. Guaitolini and Cocchi are with the Studio Medico Guaitolini-Cocchi in Novellara (RE), Italy.
3
Dr. Urso is with the Studio Medico Flebologico Zola in Predosa (BO), Italy.

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a multicomponent nutraceutical (MCN) on facial skin. Methods: A randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind trial was conducted involving two groups of female subjects affected by facial skin photoaging. For two months, volunteers took a daily dose of MCN containing 200mg of hyaluronic acid, 500mg of L-carnosine, and 400mg of methylsulfonylmethane, or a placebo. At Day 0 (T0) and Day 60 (T60), face skin hydration, elasticity, and sebometry were measured with an instrumental skin tester, and digital images of facial wrinkles were scored. A subject-based quali-/ quantitative assessment evaluating satisfaction/ quality of life was performed at T60. Results: The MCN and placebo groups each included 25 volunteers (mean ages: 49.3 and 47.8 years, respectively). After 60 days of MCN intake, glabella skin hydration and elasticity improved by 15.2 percent and 22.6 percent, respectively (p=0.03; p=0.004), glabella sebaceous secretion decreased by 24.2 percent (p=0.01), skin hydration and elasticity of the periocular area increased by 12.6 percent and 15.9 percent, respectively, and skin hydration and elasticity of the oral commissural area increased by 17.6 percent and 16 percent, respectively (p<0.001). No significant variation occurred in the placebo group. Wrinkle depth improved slightly in the MCN group (p=0.043 in the periocular area) but not in the placebo group. A slight improvement in joint pain and mucosae/ hair appearance was reported in the questionnaire in the MCN group only. Conclusions: Our results suggest that MCN is safe and effective for facial skin aesthetics and well-being.

KEYWORDS:

Carnosine; MSM; Nutraceutical; face; hyaluronic acid; skin elasticity; skin hydration

PMID:
31119010

Conflict of interest statement

FUNDING:Proeon SURL provided the placebo and MCN tablets but had no involvement in the collection or analysis of the data, nor in the preparation of the paper. DISCLOSURES:The authors have no conflicts of interest relevant to the content of this article.

Supplemental Content

Support Center