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1.
J Food Sci Technol. 2018 Mar;55(3):915-923. doi: 10.1007/s13197-017-2998-5. Epub 2018 Feb 5.

Increase of content and bioactivity of total phenolic compounds from spent coffee grounds through solid state fermentation by Bacillus clausii.

Author information

1
1Departamento de Ingeniería Bioquímica, Instituto Tecnologico de Culiacan, Juan de Dios Batiz 310, 80220 Culiacan, Sinaloa Mexico.
2
2Division de Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion, Instituto Tecnologico de Culiacan, Juan de Dios Batiz 310, 80220 Culiacan, Sinaloa Mexico.

Abstract

Spent coffee grounds are waste material generated during coffee beverage preparation. This by-product disposal causes a negative environmental impact, in addition to the loss of a rich source of nutrients and bioactive compounds. A rotating central composition design was used to determine the optimal conditions for the bioactivity of phenolic compounds obtained after the solid state fermentation of spent coffee grounds by Bacillus clausii. To achieve this, temperature and fermentation time were varied according to the experimental design and the total phenolic and flavonoid content, antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity were determined. Surface response methodology showed that optimum bioprocessing conditions were a temperature of 37 °C and a fermentation time of 39 h. Under these conditions, total phenolic and flavonoid contents increased by 36 and 13%, respectively, in fermented extracts as compared to non-fermented. In addition, the antioxidant activity was increased by 15% and higher antimicrobial activity was observed against Gram positive and negative bacteria. These data demonstrated that bioprocessing optimization of spent coffee grounds using the surface response methodology was an important tool to improve phenolic extraction, which could be used as an antioxidant and antimicrobial agents incorporated into different types of food products.

KEYWORDS:

Antimicrobial activity; Bacillus clausii; Optimization; Phenolic content; Spent coffee grounds; Surface response methodology

2.
Ultrason Sonochem. 2017 Jan;34:206-213. doi: 10.1016/j.ultsonch.2016.05.005. Epub 2016 May 20.

Development and validation of ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from waste spent coffee grounds.

Author information

1
Department of Botany and Microbiology, Addiriyah Chair for Environmental Studies, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia.
2
Department of Botany and Microbiology, Addiriyah Chair for Environmental Studies, College of Science, King Saud University, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address: ponmurugankingsaud@gmail.com.
3
Department of Food Technology, Kongu Engineering College, Perundurai, Erode, Tamilnadu, India.

Abstract

In this current work, Box-Behnken statistical experimental design (BBD) was adopted to evaluate and optimize USLE (ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction) of phytochemicals from spent coffee grounds. Factors employed in this study are ultrasonic power, temperature, time and solid-liquid (SL) ratio. Individual and interactive effect of independent variables over the extraction yield was depicted through mathematical models, which are generated from the experimental data. Determined optimum process conditions are 244W of ultrasonic power, 40°C of temperature, 34min of time and 1:17g/ml of SL ratio. The predicted values were in correlation with experimental values with 95% confidence level, under the determined optimal conditions. This indicates the significance of selected method for USLE of phytochemicals from SCG.

KEYWORDS:

Box-Behnken response surface design; Phenolic compounds; Spent coffee ground; Ultrasound-assisted solid-liquid extraction

PMID:
27773237
DOI:
10.1016/j.ultsonch.2016.05.005
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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3.
Gig Sanit. 2010 Jan-Feb;(1):39-42.

[The sanitary and hygienic state of solid garbage burial grounds in the stages of a life cycle].

[Article in Russian]

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to assess the sanitary-and-hygienic state of solid garbage (SG) burial grounds in the Perm Territory in different stage of a life cycle. This paper presents the results of the study of deposited waste, forming dump soil, and SG ground emissions by general sanitary and sanitary-microbiological parameters and their effect on environmental objects. The performed studies of the sanitary-and-hygienic situation on some grounds of the Perm Territory suggest that there is a need for setting up a system for sanitary-and-monitoring of SG ground and for elaborating engineering, organizational, and prophylactic measures to assure the sanitary-and-hygienic safety of objects and to control the quality and quantity of waste to be buried and the currents of emissions (ground body degassing, filtrating sewage drainage and purification).

PMID:
20373712
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
4.
Am J Surg. 2010 Apr;199(4):529-41. doi: 10.1016/j.amjsurg.2009.04.015. Epub 2010 Jan 18.

Contemporary virtual reality laparoscopy simulators: quicksand or solid grounds for assessing surgical trainees?

Author information

1
Department of Surgery, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, The Netherlands.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

A demand for safe, efficient laparoscopic training tools has prompted the introduction of virtual reality (VR) laparoscopic simulators, which might be used for performance assessment. The purpose of this review is to determine the value of VR metrics in laparoscopic skills assessment.

DATA SOURCES:

An exhaustive search of the MEDLINE and EMBASE databases was performed to identify publications concerning construct, concurrent and predictive validation of VR simulators. Of 643 publications found, 42 were included in this review. Studies into all 3 types of validation showed a large heterogeneity in study design. Although concurrence of VR metrics with box trainer metrics, mental aptitude tests, and in vivo surgical performance was generally weak, several metrics demonstrated construct validity in selected simulators.

CONCLUSIONS:

Using the right simulator, tasks, and metrics, trainees' and experts' laparoscopic skills can reliably be compared. However, VR simulators cannot yet predict levels of real life surgical skills.

PMID:
20080227
DOI:
10.1016/j.amjsurg.2009.04.015
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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