Format
Sort by
Items per page

Send to

Choose Destination

Search results

Items: 1 to 20 of 21166

  • Filters activated: Field: Title Word. Clear all
1.
ALTEX. 2019 Mar 11. doi: 10.14573/altex.1811271. [Epub ahead of print]

Presence of vasculature results in faster insulin response in adipocytes in vascularized adipose tissue model.

Author information

1
FICAM, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
2
Cell Biology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Technology, Tampere University, Tampere, Finland.
3
Science Centre, Pirkanmaa Hospital District, Tampere, Finland.

Abstract

Besides being an energy storage, adipose tissue is an endocrine organ closely associated with vascular system. Human relevant in vitro models are needed to study adipose tissue and related diseases. Vasculature plays a central role in the development and inhibition of adipose tissue related diseases. Here, adipocyte culture was established from hASC (human adipose stromal cells), and a vascularized adipose tissue model was established from hASC and HUVEC (human umbilical cord vein endothelial cell) co-culture, utilizing the same differentiation procedure. Using these models together allowed analysis of the effect of vascularization on adipocytes. Adipocyte culture and Vascularized adipose tissue model were characterized on gene (adipocyte and vasculature-related), protein (von Willebrand factor, CollagenIV, CD140b and CD144, secretion of leptin, adiponectin and FABP4) and functional (triglyceride accumulation, glucose uptake and lipolysis) levels. Additionally, vascularized adipose tissue model was exposed to chemicals with known effects on adipogenesis and angiogenesis (rosiglitazone, chlorpyrifos, prochloraz, mancozeb, butylparaben, 15-deoxy-δ12,14-prostaglandin j2, bisphenol a, bis-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, tributyltin chloride) to compare their effects to the literature. The in vitro vascularized adipose tissue model showed presence of functional adipocytes and extensive vascular network. Adipocytes and the vasculature showed relevant gene and protein markers. Insulin induced glucose uptake, inhibited lipolysis and influenced vasculature-related genes. The results showed that vasculature led to faster insulin response in lipolysis inhibition and modulated responses to chemicals. This novel thoroughly characterized vascularized adipose tissue model is a promising new tool for studying adipose tissue as well as effect of chemicals on adipogenesis and angiogenesis in adipose tissue.

2.
Am J Pathol. 2019 Mar 11. pii: S0002-9440(18)30674-6. doi: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2018.12.008. [Epub ahead of print]

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor-D (VEGF-D) Overexpression and Lymphatic Expansion in Murine Adipose Tissue Improves Metabolism in Obesity.

Author information

1
Division of Lymphatic Biology, Department of Medical Physiology, Texas A&M College of Medicine, College Station.
2
Touchstone Diabetes Center, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas.
3
Division of Lymphatic Biology, Department of Medical Physiology, Texas A&M College of Medicine, College Station. Electronic address: rutkowski@tamu.edu.

Abstract

Obese adipose tissue expansion is an inflammatory process that results in dysregulated lipolysis, increased circulating lipids, ectopic lipid deposition, and systemic insulin resistance. Lymphatic vessels provide a route of fluid, macromolecule, and immune cell clearance, and lymphangiogenesis increases this capability. Indeed, inflammation-associated lymphangiogenesis is critical in resolving acute and chronic inflammation, but it is largely absent in obese adipose tissue. Enhancing adipose tissue lymphangiogenesis could, therefore, improve metabolism in obesity. To test this hypothesis, transgenic mice with doxycycline-inducible expression of murine vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-D under a tightly controlled Tet-On promoter were crossed with adipocyte-specific adiponectin-reverse tetracycline-dependent transactivator mice (Adipo-VD) to stimulate adipose tissue-specific lymphangiogenesis during 16-week high-fat diet-induced obesity. Adipose VEGF-D overexpression induced de novo lymphangiogenesis in murine adipose tissue, and obese Adipo-VD mice exhibited enhanced glucose clearance, lower insulin levels, and reduced liver triglycerides. On β-3 adrenergic stimulation, Adipo-VD mice exhibited more rapid and increased glycerol flux from adipose tissue, suggesting that the lymphatics are a potential route of glycerol clearance. Resident macrophage crown-like structures were scarce and total F4/80+ macrophages were reduced in obese Adipo-VD s.c. adipose tissue with evidence of increased immune trafficking from the tissue. Augmenting VEGF-D signaling and lymphangiogenesis specifically in adipose tissue, therefore, reduces obesity-associated immune accumulation and improves metabolic responsiveness.

3.
Biology (Basel). 2019 Mar 15;8(1). pii: E16. doi: 10.3390/biology8010016.

Targeting White Adipose Tissue with Exercise or Bariatric Surgery as Therapeutic Strategies in Obesity.

Author information

1
School of Physical Education and Sport of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Avenida Bandeirantes 3900, Ribeirao Preto, SP 14040-907, Brazil. flaviagiolo@gmail.com.
2
Translational Research Institute for Metabolism and Diabetes, Advent Health, 301 East Princeton Street, Orlando, FL 32804, USA. Lauren.Sparks@adventhealth.com.

Abstract

Adipose tissue is critical to whole-body energy metabolism and has become recognized as a bona fide endocrine organ rather than an inert lipid reservoir. As such, adipose tissue is dynamic in its ability to secrete cytokines, free fatty acids, lipokines, hormones and other factors in response to changes in environmental stimuli such as feeding, fasting and exercise. While excess adipose tissue, as in the case of obesity, is associated with metabolic complications, mass itself is not the only culprit in obesity-driven metabolic abnormalities, highlighting the importance of healthy and metabolically adaptable adipose tissue. In this review, we discuss the fundamental cellular processes of adipose tissue that become perturbed in obesity and the impact of exercise on these processes. While both endurance and resistance exercise can promote positive physiological adaptations in adipose tissue, endurance exercise has a more documented role in remodeling adipocytes, increasing adipokine secretion and fatty acid mobilization and oxidation during post-exercise compared with resistance exercise. Exercise is considered a viable therapeutic strategy for the treatment of obesity to optimize body composition, in particular as an adjuvant therapy to bariatric surgery; however, there is a gap in knowledge of the molecular underpinnings of these exercise-induced adaptations, which could provide more insight and opportunity for precision-based treatment strategies.

KEYWORDS:

adipose tissue; endurance; exercise; human; obesity; resistance

PMID:
30875990
DOI:
10.3390/biology8010016
Free full text
Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)

Publication type

Publication type

4.
Andrologia. 2019 Mar 15:e13259. doi: 10.1111/and.13259. [Epub ahead of print]

Dietary trans and saturated fatty acids effects on semen quality, hormonal levels and expression of genes related to steroid metabolism in mouse adipose tissue.

Author information

1
Department of Embryology, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.
2
Reproductive Epidemiology Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.
3
Department of Poultry Sciences, Faculty of Agriculture, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.
4
Department of Genetics, Reproductive Biomedicine Research Center, Royan Institute for Reproductive Biomedicine, ACECR, Tehran, Iran.
5
Department of Reproduction and Artificial Insemination, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey.

Abstract

Our objectives were to assess sperm alteration and adipose tissue (AT) genes expression related to steroid metabolism subsequent to fatty acids consumption. Twenty-nine mature male mice were divided into: fat diet (FD; n = 15) and the control group (n = 14). FD group was fed with low level of trans and saturated fatty acids source for 60 days. Sperm parameters, levels of hormones and the mRNA abundance of the target genes in AT were assessed. The sperm concentration, total and progressive motilities were lower in FD group compared to that of control (p < 0.01). Blood estradiol levels increased in FD (p < 0.001), whereas no significant difference was observed in testosterone. The mRNA levels of StAR, CYP11A1, CYP17A1, 17βHSD7 and 17βHSD12 in AT of FD were higher than those of the control (p < 0.05). In contrast, mRNA level of Cyp19a1 in FD was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that of control. 17βHSD12 and 17βHSD7 (as oestrogenic genes) increased, while 17βHSD5 and 17βHSD3 (as androgenic genes) remained unchanged, indicating that dietary trans/saturated fatty acids affect AT genes expression. Probably, sperm parameters were altered by increment of expression level of genes involved in oestrogenic metabolism rather than those engaged in androgenic metabolism after fatty acids consumption.

KEYWORDS:

adipose tissue; dietary fatty acids; semen quality; steroidogenic enzyme gene expression

PMID:
30873638
DOI:
10.1111/and.13259
Icon for Wiley
5.
Compr Physiol. 2019 Mar 14;9(2):457-475. doi: 10.1002/cphy.c180009.

Impact of Estrogens on the Regulation of White, Beige, and Brown Adipose Tissue Depots.

Author information

1
University of Melbourne, Cardiac Phenomics Laboratory, School of Biomedical Sciences, Melbourne, Australia.
2
Hudson Institute of Medical Research, Clayton, Australia.
3
The Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, Parkville, Victoria, Australia.

Abstract

As adipose tissue depots are active endocrine organs, they secrete a variety of hormones (including estrogens from white adipose) and inflammatory mediators, which have important implications in numerous obesity-associated diseases. Adipose tissues are broadly characterized as consisting of white, beige, and brown depot types. The endocrine, metabolic, and inflammatory profiles of adipose are depot dependent and influenced by the estrogenic and androgenic status of the adipose tissue. Estrogen receptors mediate both the genomic and nongenomic actions of estrogens and are expressed in the brain, heart, and other peripheral tissues. All three known estrogen receptor α (ERα) and estrogen receptor β (ERβ), and the G-protein coupled estrogen receptor (GPER/GPR30) are expressed in white adipose and can modulate adipose mass. Expression of each receptor is dependent on depot location, adipose cell type, and estrogen levels. Estrogen receptor expression profiles in beige and brown adipocytes are less well established. This review will discuss the effects of estrogens on the differential deposition of the major adipose tissues and the impact of estrogens within white adipose depots. © 2019 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 9:457-475, 2019.

6.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Cell Biol Lipids. 2019 Mar 11. pii: S1388-1981(18)30328-7. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2019.03.004. [Epub ahead of print]

Involvement of pericardial adipose tissue in cardiac fibrosis of dietary-induced obese minipigs- Role of mitochondrial function.

Author information

1
Department of Animal Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, No. 50, Lane 155, Sec 3, Keelung Rd, Taipei 10672, Taiwan.
2
Department of Animal Science and Technology, National Taiwan University, No. 50, Lane 155, Sec 3, Keelung Rd, Taipei 10672, Taiwan. Electronic address: ronichen@ntu.edu.tw.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Heart is a high energy demand organ and cardiac fat is the main local energy source for heart. Alteration in cardiac fat may affect cardiac energy and contribute to heart dysfunction. We previously observed a link between alteration in pericardial fat (PAT) and local adverse effects on myocardial fibrosis in obese minipigs. This study investigated the role of PAT on cardiac energy and mitochondrial function, and elucidated a potential mechanism for PAT in cardiac fibrosis.

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

Five-month-old Lee-Sung minipigs were made obese by feeding a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 months. The conditioned medium from PAT of obese minipigs (PAT-CM) was collected and H9C2 cells were treated with it to study mechanisms.

RESULTS:

HFD caused a cardiac energy deficit and fibrosis in the left ventricle. An elevated content of IL6 and malondialdehyde was found in the PAT of obese pigs. Obese pigs exhibited an increased level of oleic acid and a reduced level of saturated fatty acids in PAT compared to control pigs. HFD did not alter the metabolic characteristics of epicardial fat. PAT-CM caused apoptosis of H9C2 cells and inhibited basal mitochondrial respiration and ATP production. Protein expressions for mitochondrial dynamics- (Mfn2, Opa1, Drp1, and Fis1) and a mitophagy-related protein (Parkin) were suppressed by PAT-CM. PAT-CM enhanced the protein expression of LC3II, and the ratio of LC3II/LC3I. To conclude, PAT was involved in cardiac fibrosis of HFD-fed minipigs. The secretomes of PAT impaired mitochondrial functions and caused cardiomyocyte apoptosis in a paracrine manner.

KEYWORDS:

Autophagy; High-fat diet; Minipigs; Mitochondrial dynamics; Mitochondrial respiration; Pericardial adipose tissue

7.
Phytother Res. 2019 Mar 13. doi: 10.1002/ptr.6330. [Epub ahead of print]

Guarana supplementation attenuated obesity, insulin resistance, and adipokines dysregulation induced by a standardized human Western diet via brown adipose tissue activation.

Author information

1
Centro de Estudos em Estresse Oxidativo, Departamento de Bioquímica, Instituto de Ciências Básicas da Saúde, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil.
2
Departamento de Civil y Ambiental, Universidad de la Costa, Barranquilla, Colombia.
3
Departamento de Educação em Saúde, Campus Universitário Professor Antônio Garcia Filho, Universidade Federal de Sergipe (UFS), Lagarto, Brazil.
4
Programa de Pós-graduação em Biologia Celular e Molecular, Centro de Biotecnologia (CBiot), Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, Brazil.

Abstract

Obesity is a metabolic disorder associated with adverse health consequences that has increased worldwide at an epidemic rate. This has encouraged many people to utilize nonprescription herbal supplements for weight loss without knowledge of their safety or efficacy. However, mounting evidence has shown that some herbal supplements used for weight loss are associated with adverse effects. Guarana seed powder is a popular nonprescription dietary herb supplement marketed for weight loss, but no study has demonstrated its efficacy or safety when administered alone. Wistar rats were fed four different diets (low-fat diet and Western diet with or without guarana supplementation) for 18 weeks. Metabolic parameters, gut microbiota changes, and toxicity were then characterized. Guarana seed powder supplementation prevented weight gain, insulin resistance, and adipokine dysregulation induced by Western diet compared with the control diet. Guarana induced brown adipose tissue expansion, mitochondrial biogenesis, uncoupling protein-1 overexpression, AMPK activation, and minor changes in gut microbiota. Molecular docking suggested a direct activation of AMPK by four guarana compounds tested here. We propose that brown adipose tissue activation is one of the action mechanisms involved in guarana supplementation-induced weight loss and that direct AMPK activation may underlie this mechanism. In summary, guarana is an attractive potential therapeutic agent to treat obesity.

KEYWORDS:

diet-induced obesity; guarana; microbiota; molecular docking; weight loss

PMID:
30868680
DOI:
10.1002/ptr.6330
Icon for Wiley
8.
Oncol Lett. 2019 Mar;17(3):3203-3210. doi: 10.3892/ol.2019.9977. Epub 2019 Jan 28.

Effect of brown adipose tissue/cells on the growth of mouse hepatocellular carcinoma in vitro and in vivo.

Author information

1
Institute of Medicinal Biotechnology, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100050, P.R. China.

Abstract

Activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT) is an effective strategy for treating obesity. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a life-threatening hepatic malignancy with a high mortality rate. Considering that obesity is a risk factor for HCC, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between HCC and BAT. Using a mouse model, H22 transplantation led to an increase in liver weight, a decrease in the weight of BAT and white adipose tissue, and an increase in the serum level of triacylglycerol (TG). In the in vivo BAT excision model, the removal of BAT led to increased growth of H22 tumors, which was accompanied by a more marked increase in liver weight and in the serum level of TG. The in vitro and in vivo intervention models with primary brown adipose cells (BACs) indicated that primary BACs can directly decrease the viability of H22 cells and the growth of tumors. In conclusion, BAT is a protective organ or tissue against HCC, and BACs may be a potential therapeutic tool for the treatment of HCC.

KEYWORDS:

H22 cell viability; brown adipose tissue excision; brown adipose tissues; hepatocellular carcinoma

9.
EMBO Rep. 2019 Mar 13. pii: e46832. doi: 10.15252/embr.201846832. [Epub ahead of print]

Parkin controls brown adipose tissue plasticity in response to adaptive thermogenesis.

Author information

1
Departament de Bioquímica i Biomedicina Molecular, Institut de Biomedicina de la Universitat de Barcelona (IBUB), Barcelona, Spain.
2
CIBER Fisiopatologia de la Obesidad y Nutrición, Madrid, Spain.
3
Departament de Bioquímica i Biomedicina Molecular, Institut de Biomedicina de la Universitat de Barcelona (IBUB), Barcelona, Spain joanvillarroya@gmail.com fvillarroya@ub.edu.
4
Institut de Recerca Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain.

Abstract

Parkin is an ubiquitin-E3 ligase that acts as a key component of the cellular machinery for mitophagy. We show here that Parkin expression is reciprocally regulated in brown adipose tissue in relation to thermogenic activity. Thermogenic stimuli repress Parkin gene expression via transcriptional mechanisms that are elicited by noradrenergic and PPARα-mediated pathways that involve intracellular lipolysis in brown adipocytes. Parkin-KO mice show over-activated brown adipose tissue thermogenic activity and exhibit improved metabolic parameters, especially when fed a high-fat diet. Deacclimation, which is the return of a cold-adapted mouse to a thermoneutral temperature, dramatically induces mitophagy in brown adipocytes, with a concomitant induction of Parkin levels. We further reveal that Parkin-KO mice exhibit defects in the degradative processing of mitochondrial proteins in brown adipose tissue in response to deacclimation. These results suggest that the transcriptional control of Parkin in brown adipose tissue may contribute to modulating the mitochondrial mass and activity for adaptation to thermogenic requirements.

KEYWORDS:

adiposity; autophagy; mitophagy; obesity

10.
Turk J Med Sci. 2019 Mar 14;49(2). doi: 10.3906/sag-1809-48. [Epub ahead of print]

The association of reduced bone density with paraspinal muscle atrophy and adipose tissue in geriatric patients: a cross-sectional CT study

Abstract

Background/aim:

The aim of the study is to examine the relationship among bone density, adipose tissue, and muscle mass with abdominal CT in geriatric patients.

Materials and methods:

The study is a retrospective cohort study of patients 65 years and over who underwent abdominal CT for any reason between October 2017 and July 2018. Third lumbar vertebra density, fatty degeneration of the paraspinal muscle, subcutaneous adipose tissue, and mesenteric adipose tissue ratio were evaluated.

Results:

A total of 312 patients, 144 females and 168 males, were included in the study. Reduced bone density was found in 237 (76%) patients. Reduced bone density and muscle atrophy was more frequent in females (P < 0.001). Muscle atrophy was found to occur 5.7 times more frequently in cases of reduced bone density (OR, 95% CI = 5.74 (3.27–10.09), P < 0.001). There was no significant relationship found between reduced bone density and subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness or mesenteric adipose tissue ratio (P = 0.073, P = 0.939, respectively).

Conclusion:

In the geriatric age group, reduced bone density and muscle atrophy were quite common and were significantly more frequent in women. Furthermore, a strong association between reduced bone density and muscle atrophy was found. No relationship was found between reduced bone density and subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness–mesenteric adipose ratio.

KEYWORDS:

Osteoporosis; bone density; geriatrics; muscular atrophy; adipose tissue

11.
J Bone Miner Res. 2019 Mar 13. doi: 10.1002/jbmr.3710. [Epub ahead of print]

Association of Appendicular Lean Mass, Subcutaneous and Visceral Adipose Tissue with Mortality in Older Brazilians: The São Paulo Ageing & Health Study.

Author information

1
Bone Metabolism Laboratory, Rheumatology Division, Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.
2
Department of Preventive Medicine, Faculdade de Medicina FMUSP da Universidade de Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, SP, Brazil.

Abstract

Body composition changes resulting from ageing may impact older adults survival. However, its influence on mortality risk is uncertain. Currently, the best method for body composition analysis in clinical practice is dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Nonetheless, the few studies on body composition by DXA and mortality risk in elderlies have some limitations. We investigated the association between body composition by DXA and mortality in a cohort of elderly subjects. Eight hundred and thirty nine (839) community-dwelling subjects (516 women, 323 men), ≥65 years, were assessed by questionnaire on clinical data, laboratory exams and body composition by DXA at baseline. Total fat and its compartments (eg. visceral adipose tissue [VAT]) were estimated. Appendicular lean mass (ALM) adjusted for fat and ALM divided by height² were used to ascertain the presence of low muscle mass (LMM). Mortality was recorded during follow-up. Multivariate logistic regression was used to compute odds ratios for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Over a mean follow-up of 4.06 ± 1.07 years, there were 132(15.7%) deaths. In men, after adjustment for relevant variables, the presence of LMM (OR 11.36, 95% CI: 2.21-58.37, p=0.004) and VAT (OR 1.99 95%CI: 1.38-2.87, p<0.001, for each 100g-increase) significantly increased all-cause mortality risk, while total fat, measured by Fat Mass Index (FMI), was associated with decreased mortality risk (OR 0.48, 95% CI: 0.33-0.71, p<0.001). Similar results were observed for cardiovascular mortality. In women, only LMM was a predictor of all-cause (OR 62.88, 95% CI: 22.59-175.0, p<0.001) and cardiovascular death (OR 74.54, 95% CI: 9.72-571.46, p <0.001). LMM ascertained by ALM adjusted for fat and fat mass by itself are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality risk in elderlies. Visceral and subcutaneous fat have opposite roles on mortality risk in elderly men. Thus, DXA is a promising tool to estimate risk of mortality in elderlies. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

DXA; aging; mortality; sarcopenia; visceral adipose tissue.

PMID:
30866105
DOI:
10.1002/jbmr.3710
Icon for Wiley
12.
Equine Vet J. 2019 Mar 13. doi: 10.1111/evj.13097. [Epub ahead of print]

Adipose tissue dysfunction in obese horses with Equine Metabolic Syndrome.

Author information

1
Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Studies, University of Edinburgh, Easter Bush Campus, Midlothian, EH25 9RG, UK.
2
University/BHF Centre for Cardiovascular Science, The Queen's Medical Research Institute, University of Edinburgh, 47 Little France Crescent, Edinburgh, EH16 4TJ, UK.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Obesity is a common feature of equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). In other species obese adipose tissue shows pathological features such as adipocyte hypertrophy, fibrosis, inflammation and impaired insulin signalling all of which contribute to whole body insulin dysregulation. Such adipose tissue dysfunction has not been investigated in horses.

OBJECTIVES:

To determine if obese horses with EMS have adipose tissue dysfunction characterised by adipocyte hypertrophy, fibrosis, inflammation and altered insulin signalling.

STUDY DESIGN:

Cross-sectional post mortem study.

METHODS:

Samples of peri-renal (visceral) and retroperitoneal adipose tissue were obtained at post mortem from healthy horses (n = 9) and horses with EMS (n = 6). Samples were analysed to determine average adipocyte size, fibrotic content and expression of inflammatory and insulin signalling genes.

RESULTS:

Horses with metabolic syndrome showed marked adipocyte hypertrophy and increased expression of adipokines (leptin) and inflammatory cytokines (TNFα, IL1β and CCL2) in both adipose tissue depots compared to healthy horses. There were no differences in fibrosis or expression of genes relating to insulin signalling between the groups.

MAIN LIMITATIONS:

Cases used in this study had advanced EMS and may represent the end stage of the condition; the design of the study is such that we were unable to relate the identified adipose tissue dysfunction to whole body insulin dysregulation.

CONCLUSIONS:

Horses with obesity and EMS have significant dysfunction of the peri-renal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue that may contribute to whole body insulin dysregulation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

KEYWORDS:

adipocyte; adipose tissue; equine metabolic syndrome; horse; insulin dysregulation; obesity

PMID:
30866087
DOI:
10.1111/evj.13097
Icon for Wiley
13.
Comput Math Methods Med. 2019 Feb 3;2019:7525834. doi: 10.1155/2019/7525834. eCollection 2019.

Modeling the Effect of High Calorie Diet on the Interplay between Adipose Tissue, Inflammation, and Diabetes.

Author information

1
Institute for Applied Computing (IAC) "M. Picone", National Research Council of Italy (CNR), Via dei Taurini, 19-00185 Rome, Italy.
2
Institute for Advanced Study (IAS), University of Amsterdam (UvA), Oude Turfmarkt, 147-1012 GC Amsterdam, Netherlands.

Abstract

Background:

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic metabolic disease potentially leading to serious widespread tissue damage. Human organism develops T2D when the glucose-insulin control is broken for reasons that are not fully understood but have been demonstrated to be linked to the emergence of a chronic inflammation. Indeed such low-level chronic inflammation affects the pancreatic production of insulin and triggers the development of insulin resistance, eventually leading to an impaired control of the blood glucose concentration. On the contrary, it is well-known that obesity and inflammation are strongly correlated.

Aim:

In this study, we investigate in silico the effect of overfeeding on the adipose tissue and the consequent set up of an inflammatory state. We model the emergence of the inflammation as the result of adipose mass increase which, in turn, is a direct consequence of a prolonged excess of high calorie intake.

Results:

The model reproduces the fat accumulation due to excessive caloric intake observed in two clinical studies. Moreover, while showing consistent weight gains over long periods of time, it reveals a drift of the macrophage population toward the proinflammatory phenotype, thus confirming its association with fatness.

14.
Sci Rep. 2019 Mar 12;9(1):4202. doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-40992-x.

A comparison between the abdominal and femoral adipose tissue proteome of overweight and obese women.

Author information

1
Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
2
Department of Clinical Genetics, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
3
Department of Human Biology, NUTRIM School of Nutrition and Translational Research in Metabolism, Maastricht University Medical Center+, Maastricht, The Netherlands. G.Goossens@maastrichtuniversity.nl.

Abstract

Body fat distribution is an important determinant of cardiometabolic health. Lower-body adipose tissue (AT) has protective characteristics as compared to upper-body fat, but the underlying depot-differences remain to be elucidated. Here, we compared the proteome and morphology of abdominal and femoral AT. Paired biopsies from abdominal and femoral subcutaneous AT were taken from eight overweight/obese (BMI ≥ 28 kg/m2) women with impaired glucose metabolism after an overnight fast. Proteins were isolated and quantified using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, and protein expression in abdominal and femoral subcutaneous AT was compared. Moreover, correlations between fat cell size and the proteome of both AT depots were determined. In total, 651 proteins were identified, of which 22 proteins tended to be differentially expressed between abdominal and femoral AT after removal of blood protein signals (p < 0.05). Proteins involved in cell structure organization and energy metabolism were differently expressed between AT depots. Fat cell size, which was higher in femoral AT, was significantly correlated with ADH1B, POSTN and LCP1. These findings suggest that there are only slight differences in protein expression between abdominal and femoral subcutaneous AT. It remains to be determined whether these differences, as well as differences in protein activity, contribute to functional and/or morphological differences between these fat depots.

PMID:
30862933
DOI:
10.1038/s41598-019-40992-x
Free PMC Article
Icon for Nature Publishing Group Icon for PubMed Central
15.
Diabetes. 2019 Mar 12. pii: db181070. doi: 10.2337/db18-1070. [Epub ahead of print]

A Thermogenic-Like Brown Adipose Tissue Phenotype is Dispensable for Enhanced Glucose Tolerance in Female Mice.

Author information

1
Nutrition and Exercise Physiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.
2
Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA.
3
Division of Endocrinology, Department of Medicine, and Department of Molecular and Medical Pharmacology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USA.
4
Office of Animal Resources, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.
5
Department of Medicine-Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.
6
Research Service-Harry S Truman Memorial VA Hospital, Columbia, MO, USA.
7
Nutrition and Exercise Physiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA padillaja@missouri.edu.
8
Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.
9
Child Health, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.

Abstract

The prevailing dogma is that thermogenic brown adipose tissue (BAT) contributes to improvements in glucose homeostasis in obesogenic animal models; though, much of the evidence supporting this premise is from thermostressed rodents. Whether modulation of the BAT morphology/function drives changes in glucoregulation at thermoneutrality requires further investigation. We utilized loss and gain-of-function approaches including genetic manipulation of the lipolytic enzyme Pnpla2, change in environmental temperature, and lifestyle interventions to comprehensively test the premise that a thermogenic-like BAT phenotype is coupled with enhanced glucose tolerance in female mice. In contrast to this hypothesis, we found that: (i) compared to mice living at thermoneutrality, enhanced activation of BAT and its thermogenic phenotype via chronic mild cold stress does not improve glucose tolerance in obese mice; (ii) silencing of the Pnpla2 in interscapular BAT causes a brown-to-white phenotypic shift accompanied with inflammation but does not disrupt glucose tolerance in lean mice; and (iii) exercise and low-fat diet improve glucose tolerance in obese mice but these effects do not track with a thermogenic BAT phenotype. Collectively, these findings indicate that a thermogenic-like BAT phenotype is not linked to heightened glucose tolerance in female mice.

PMID:
30862679
DOI:
10.2337/db18-1070
Icon for HighWire
16.
Biomolecules. 2019 Mar 11;9(3). pii: E97. doi: 10.3390/biom9030097.

The Relationship between Epicardial Adipose Tissue Thickness and Serum Interleukin-17a Level in Patients with Isolated Metabolic Syndrome.

Author information

1
Department of İnternal Medicine, Kanuni Sultan Süleyman Education and Research Hospital, 34103 İstanbul, Turkey. esracokicli@hotmail.com.
2
Department of İnternal Medicine, Bakırköy Dr Sadi Konuk Education and Research Hospital, 34147 İstanbul, Turkey. oharmankaya@yahoo.com.
3
Department of İnternal Medicine, Kanuni Sultan Süleyman Education and Research Hospital, 34103 İstanbul, Turkey. iremkrac@yahoo.com.
4
Department of Cardiology, Medeniyet University Medical Faculty, 34722 İstanbul, Turkey. drgonulkutlu@hotmail.com.
5
Department of Cardiology, Konya Education and Research Hospital, 42040 Konya, Turkey. turgutuyguncapa@hotmail.com.
6
Department of İnternal Medicine, Kanuni Sultan Süleyman Education and Research Hospital, 34103 İstanbul, Turkey. haniseozkan@hotmail.com.
7
Department of Cardiology, Bakırköy Dr Sadi Konuk Education and Research Hospital, 34147 İstanbul, Turkey. drbdmr06@hotmail.com.

Abstract

In this study, it was aimed to investigate the relationship between the epicardial adipose tissue thickness (EATT) and serum IL-17A level insulin resistance in metabolic syndrome patients. This study enrolled a total of 160 subjects, of whom 80 were consecutive patients who applied to our outpatient clinic and were diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, and the other 80 were consecutive patients who were part of the control group with similar age and demographics in whom the metabolic syndrome was excluded. The metabolic syndrome diagnosis was made according to International Diabetes Federation (IDF)-2005 criteria. EATT was measured with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in the subjects. IL-17A serum levels were determined using the ELISA method. Fasting blood glucose, HDL, triglyceride, and fasting insulin levels were significantly higher in the metabolic syndrome group compared to the control group. In addition, the metabolic syndrome group had significantly higher high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and Homeostatic Model Assessment Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) levels than the control group. Similarly, serum IL-17A levels were significantly elevated in the metabolic syndrome group compared to the control group statistically (p < 0.001). As well, EATT was higher in the metabolic syndrome than the control group. Conclusion: By virtue of their proinflammatory properties, EATT and IL-17 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome.

KEYWORDS:

adipose tissue; interleukin 17A; metabolic syndrome

PMID:
30862094
DOI:
10.3390/biom9030097
Free full text
Icon for Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
17.
Sci Total Environ. 2019 Mar 2;668:310-317. doi: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.03.008. [Epub ahead of print]

Prolonged inorganic arsenic exposure via drinking water impairs brown adipose tissue function in mice.

Author information

1
Program of Environmental Toxicology, School of Public Health, China Medical University, No 77 Puhe Road, Shenyang North New Area, Shenyang, Liaoning 110122, PR China.
2
Program of Environmental Toxicology, School of Public Health, China Medical University, No 77 Puhe Road, Shenyang North New Area, Shenyang, Liaoning 110122, PR China. Electronic address: yyhou@cmu.edu.cn.
3
Group of Chronic Disease and Environmental Genomics, School of Public Health, China Medical University, No 77 Puhe Road, Shenyang North New Area, Shenyang, Liaoning 110122, PR China.
4
Program of Environmental Toxicology, School of Public Health, China Medical University, No 77 Puhe Road, Shenyang North New Area, Shenyang, Liaoning 110122, PR China. Electronic address: jbpi@cmu.edu.cn.

Abstract

Although epidemiologic studies show an association between long-term environmental inorganic arsenic (iAs) exposure and various disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism, the mechanisms of these ailments remain unclear. While white adipose tissue (WAT) essentially acts as a storage tissue for energy and is key to energy homeostasis, brown adipose tissue (BAT) consumes excess energy via uncoupling protein 1-mediated non-shivering thermogenesis in mitochondria and helps maintain the steady state of glucose and lipid metabolism. Our previous in vitro work found that iAs may inhibit adipogenesis and glucose uptake in adipocytes, leading us to hypothesize that chronic exposure to iAs in vivo may also affect the development and function of BAT, which plays a part in iAs-induced metabolic disorders. Thus, adult C57BL/6J female mice were provided drinking water containing 5 or 20 ppm of inorganic arsenicals (iAs3+ and iAs5+) for 17 weeks and control mice were given unaltered water. In these mice, iAs exposure induced cold intolerance and lipid accretion in BAT. In addition, iAs exposure impaired expression of various genes related to thermogenesis, mitochondrial function, adipocyte differentiation, as well as lipolysis in BAT of the exposed mice. These findings suggest a novel toxicity of iAs in BAT occurring via induction of BAT malfunction and impairment of thermogenesis. This novel toxicological linkage helps explain the mechanisms linking iAs exposure to increased risk of disorders of glucose and lipid metabolism.

KEYWORDS:

Brown adipose tissue; Inorganic arsenic; Metabolic disorder; UCP1

18.
J Immunol. 2019 Mar 8. pii: ji1801470. doi: 10.4049/jimmunol.1801470. [Epub ahead of print]

Loss of Antigen Presentation in Adipose Tissue Macrophages or in Adipocytes, but Not Both, Improves Glucose Metabolism.

Author information

1
Diabetes and Metabolism Research Center, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210.
2
The Comprehensive Cancer Center-Arthur G. James Cancer Hospital and Richard J. Solove Research Institute, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.
3
Program in Molecular Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA 01605.
4
Department of Microbial Infection and Immunity, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210; and.
5
Center for Bioenergetics, Houston Methodist Research Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, Houston, TX 77030.
6
Diabetes and Metabolism Research Center, Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism, Department of Internal Medicine, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH 43210; Willa.Hsueh@osumc.edu.

Abstract

Macrophages, B cells, and adipocytes are among the adipose tissue (AT) APCs that differentiate and activate naive CD4+ T cells. Mice with adipocyte loss of MHC class II (MHC II) are more insulin sensitive. Because macrophages are professional APCs, mice with genetic myeloid MHC II depletion (myeloid MHC II knockout [mMHCII-/-]) were created and metabolically characterized. FITC+ glucan-coated particles (glucan-encapsulated small interfering RNA [siRNA] particles [GeRPs]) were also used to target MHC II knockout specifically in AT macrophages (ATMs). Mice with total body mMHCII-/- were generated by crossing LyzMCre with H2Ab1 floxed mice. For specific ATM depletion of H2Ab1, GeRPs containing H2Ab1 siRNA were administered to high-fat diet-fed C57BL/6 mice. Unexpectedly, mMHCII-/- mice had loss of both macrophage and adipocyte H2Ab1, one of only two Ag-presenting arms; thus, neither cell could present Ag and activate CD4+ T cells. This inability led to a reduction in AT immunosuppressive regulatory T cells, increased AT CD8+ T cells, and no improvement in systemic metabolism. Thus, with combined systemic myeloid and adipocyte MHC II loss, the impact of ATM-specific alterations in APC activity could not be delineated. Therefore, GeRPs containing H2Ab1 siRNA were administered to specifically reduce ATM H2Ab1 which, in contrast, revealed improved glucose tolerance. In conclusion, loss of either ATM or adipocyte APC function, but not both, improves systemic glucose metabolism because of maintenance of AT regulatory T cells.

19.
Iran J Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2019 Feb;18(1):114-119.

Immunomodulatory Effects of Human Adipose Tissue-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on T Cell Subsets in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis.

Author information

1
Cancer Research Center, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran AND Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran. baharlour@gmail.com.
2
Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. nesarashidi@yahoo.com.
3
Department of Immunology and Microbiology, School of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran. ahvasmehjani@gmail.com.
4
Department of Student Research Committee, School of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran. m.Khoubyari@yahoo.com.
5
Department of Immunology, School of Medicine, Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran. s_sheikh9011@yahoo.com.
6
Research Center for Non-Communicable Diseases, School of Medicine, Jahrom University of Medical Sciences, Jahrom, Iran. erfanian_85@yahoo.com.

Abstract

Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (Ad-MSCs) have been reported to suppress the effector T cell responses and have beneficial effects on various immune disorders, like rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was designed to investigate the effects of co-cultured Ad-MSCs on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of RA patients and healthy individuals, through assessing transcription factors of T cell subsets. PBMCs from RA patients and healthy donors were co-cultured with Ad-MSCs with or without Phytohaemagglutinin (PHA). The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression of T-box 21 (T-bet), GATA-binding protein-3 (GATA3), retinoid-related orphan receptor γt (ROR-γt) and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3). Based on the results, Ad-MSCs greatly upregulated Th2 and Treg cell transcription factors, i.e., GATA3 and Foxp3 (p<0.05), and downregulated Th1 and Th17 transcription factors, i.e., T-bet and RORγt (p<0.05). These results demonstrate that Ad-MSCs can result in an immunosuppressive environment through inhibition of pro-inflammatory T cells and induction of T cells with a regulatory phenotype. Therefore, they might have important clinical implications for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases such as RA.

KEYWORDS:

Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell; Foxp3; GATA3; ROR-γ; Regulatory T cells; Rheumatoid arthritis; T helper 1; T helper 17; T helper 2; T-bet

PMID:
30848580
Free full text
Icon for Tehran University of Medical Sciences, The Center for Electronic Resources Provision & Journals Development
20.
Methods Mol Biol. 2019;1972:95-108. doi: 10.1007/978-1-4939-9213-3_7.

The Control of Glucose and Lactate Levels in Nutrient Medium After Cell Incubation and in Microdialysates of Human Adipose Tissue by Capillary Electrophoresis with Contactless Conductivity Detection.

Author information

1
Department of Hygiene, Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic. petr.tuma@lf3.cuni.cz.

Abstract

Two methods of capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection have been developed for monitoring the levels of glucose and lactate in clinical samples. The separations are performed in uncoated fused silica capillaries with inner diameter 10 or 20 μm, total length 31.5 cm, length to detector 18 cm, using an Agilent electrophoretic instrument with an integrated contactless conductivity detector. Glucose is determined in optimized background electrolyte, 50 mM NaOH with pH 12.6 and 2-deoxyglucose is used as an internal standard; the determination of lactate is performed in 40 mM CHES/NaOH with pH 9.4 and lithium cations as an internal standard. Both substances are determined in minimal volumes of (1) nutrient media after cell incubation, and (2) microdialysates of human adipose tissue; after dilution and filtration as the only treatment of the sample. The migration time of glucose is 2.5 min and that of lactate is 1.5 min with detection limits at the micromolar concentration level. The developed techniques are suitable for sequential monitoring of glucose and lactate over time during metabolic experiments.

KEYWORDS:

Capillary electrophoresis; Cell incubation; Contactless conductivity detection; Glucose; Lactate; Microdialysis; Rapid determination

Supplemental Content

Loading ...
Support Center