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J Surg Res. 2018 Sep;229:243-253. doi: 10.1016/j.jss.2018.03.068. Epub 2018 May 3.

Adipose stem cells enhance excisional wound healing in a porcine model.

Author information

1
Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
2
Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Discipline of Plastic Surgery, Department of Surgery, Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.
3
Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Sorbonne Universités, UPMC University, IBPS-Developmental Biology Laboratory, Paris, France.
4
Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
5
Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
6
Department of Plastic Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; McGowan Institute for Regenerative Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; Department of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Electronic address: rubinjp@upmc.edu.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are capable of secreting regenerative growth factors and replacing multiple tissue types. Although current literature suggests that ASCs accelerate wound healing and reduce scarring, the dose-response relationship has not been adequately investigated in large animals. We sought to establish a porcine model to optimize dose and delivery.

METHODS:

Four-centimeter circular, full thickness excisional wounds were created on the backs of Yorkshire pigs. Fluorescently labeled allogeneic porcine ASCs were injected into the superficial wound bed and around the wound perimeter at high (3.0 × 106 cells/cm2; n = 8), medium (1.0 × 106 cells/cm2; n = 8), and low (0.3 × 106 cells/cm2; n = 8) doses. Control wounds received saline injections (n = 8) or no treatment (n = 8). Dressings were changed twice per week, and wound closure was tracked by surface area tracing. Animals were sacrificed at 1 and 2 wk. Wounds were harvested for real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry, and ASC tracking.

RESULTS:

Labeled ASCs integrated into treated wounds by 1 wk in a dose-dependent fashion. Epithelial coverage was achieved by 14 d in all wounds. Wounds receiving high-dose ASCs exhibited thicker granulating neodermis at 7 d and greater wound contraction at 14 d. real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction revealed improved collagen 1:collagen 3 (Col1:Col3) ratio in the medium-dose group and enhanced α-smooth muscle actin in the high-dose group at 14 d. Western blot demonstrated increased cluster of differentiation 31 protein at 2 wk in wounds receiving >106 cells/cm2.

CONCLUSIONS:

Doses up to 3.0 × 106 cells/cm2 were well-tolerated. High-dose ASCs accelerate wound contraction, enhance neovascularization, and may improve scar quality in excisional wounds healing by secondary intention. Doses greater than those previously used may be necessary to achieve desired effects.

KEYWORDS:

ASC; Adipose stem cell; Excisional wounds; Pig model; Porcine model; Wound healing

PMID:
29936997
DOI:
10.1016/j.jss.2018.03.068

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