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1.
Annu Rev Med. 2019 Oct 15. doi: 10.1146/annurev-med-090518-093731. [Epub ahead of print]

Topical Microbicides in HIV Prevention: State of the Promise.

Author information

1
Departments of Global Health, Medicine, and Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98104, USA; email: jbaeten@uw.edu.
2
Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21205, USA; email: chendrix@jhmi.edu.
3
Departments of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences and Microbiology and Molecular Genetics, University of Pittsburgh, Magee-Womens Research Institute, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213, USA; email: hillsl@mwri.magee.edu.

Abstract

HIV topical microbicides are products with anti-HIV activity, generally incorporating a direct-acting antiretroviral agent, that when applied to the vagina or rectum have the potential to prevent the sexual acquisition of HIV in women and men. Topical microbicides may meet the prevention needs of individuals and groups for whom oral daily forms of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) have not been acceptable. Microbicides can provide personal control over HIV prevention and offer the possibility of discreet use, qualities that may be particularly important for receptive partners in sexual relationships such as women and transgender women and men, who together account for the clear majority of new HIV infections worldwide. Although the promise of such a product emerged nearly three decades ago, proof of concept has been demonstrated only within the last decade. A robust pipeline of microbicidal gels, films, inserts, and rings has been evaluated in multiple studies among at-risk women and men, and refinement of products for ease of use, reversibility, and high safety is the priority for the field. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Medicine, Volume 71 is January 27, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

2.
Tex Med. 2019 Oct 1;115(10):32-35.

The Promise of Artificial Intelligence.

Abstract

"Prepare Yourselves, Robots Will Soon Replace Doctors in Healthcare," screamed the headline in a 2017 Forbes magazine article. Media coverage like that makes it easy to see why artificial intelligence (AI) sounds like scary science fiction to some physicians.

PMID:
31613379
3.
BioDrugs. 2019 Oct 12. doi: 10.1007/s40259-019-00388-9. [Epub ahead of print]

Delivering on the Promise of Biosimilars.

Author information

1
Clinical Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium. a.vulto@gmail.com.
2
Hospital Pharmacy, ErasmusMC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. a.vulto@gmail.com.

Abstract

Fifteen years of experience with biosimilar evaluation in Europe and advancement in the science behind biological medicines, provides a timely moment to open up debate as to whether the requirements for biosimilar approval could be further tailored. Further optimizing of data requirements to truly decisional information will allow to continuously deliver on the promise of biosimilars, providing benefits for patients and society.

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4.
Science. 2019 Oct 11;366(6462):186-187. doi: 10.1126/science.aaz1129.

The promise of phase-change materials.

Author information

1
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Donadeo Innovation Centre for Engineering, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. bgholipo@ualberta.ca.

Publication type

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5.
JACC Cardiovasc Imaging. 2019 Oct;12(10):2100-2102. doi: 10.1016/j.jcmg.2019.09.001.

The Promise of Imaging in MINOCA.

Author information

1
Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard University Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
2
Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York.
3
University of Minnesota School of Medicine and the VA Medical Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota.
6.
BMJ. 2019 Oct 9;367:l5719. doi: 10.1136/bmj.l5719.

Pandemic Emergency Financing Facility: struggling to deliver on its innovative promise.

Author information

1
London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK b.brim@lse.ac.uk.
2
London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
3
Charité-Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
4
London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK.
PMID:
31597630
DOI:
10.1136/bmj.l5719
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Conflict of interest statement

Competing interests: We have read and understood BMJ policy on declaration of interests and have no relevant interests to declare.

7.
Eur J Health Law. 2019 Oct 4;26(4):308-329. doi: 10.1163/15718093-12264438.

CRISPR-Cas9 and the Promise of a Better Future.

Author information

1
Faculty of Law, University of Macau Macau China.

Abstract

Due to its simplicity, low cost and accuracy, CRISPR-Cas9 has become a promising new technique in the field of gene editing. However, despite its virtues, it is not yet immune to scientific hazards and ethical legal concerns. These concerns have been used to justify opposition to genetic manipulation, and have led to some regulations to ban or impose a moratorium based on the precautionary principle. In Europe, regulation mostly comes from the European Union and the Council of Europe, both very cautious towards gene editing. In this article, two arguments on the future legal framework of CRISPR-Cas9 are made. The first is that continued research will contribute to more scientific accuracy; thus, the precautionary principle should promote regulated research to achieve this aim. The second is that most of the legal and ethical concerns surrounding CRISPR-Cas9 are based on unfounded prejudice emanating from a mystical understanding of the human genome.

KEYWORDS:

CRISPR-Cas9; Council of Europe (CoE); European Union (EU); gene editing; precautionary principle

8.
Healthc Pap. 2019 Sep;18(2):30-34. doi: 10.12927/hcpap.2019.25923.

The Promise of Psychosocial Therapies for Use with Immigrant, Refugee, Ethno-Cultural and Racialized Populations.

Author information

1
Research Coordinator, CAMH, Toronto, ON.

Abstract

Psychotherapies are a fundamental part of mental healthcare. These have been shown to be effective treatments for a wide range of mental disorders, from anxiety and depression to psychoses such as schizophrenia. However, there is evidence that the effectiveness of psychotherapies may vary, and these may need to be adapted to work optimally for different cultural groups. In addition, some diagnoses that are more common in refugee populations may require specific interventions. This paper examines the effectiveness of psychotherapeutic techniques for immigrant, refugee, ethno-cultural and racialized populations.

9.
Annu Rev Entomol. 2019 Oct 8. doi: 10.1146/annurev-ento-011019-025010. [Epub ahead of print]

Botanical Insecticides in the Twenty-First Century-Fulfilling Their Promise?

Author information

1
Faculty of Land and Food Systems, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4, Canada; email: murray.isman@ubc.ca.

Abstract

Academic interest in plant natural products with insecticidal properties has continued to grow in the past 20 years, while commercialization of new botanical insecticides and market expansion of existing botanicals has lagged considerably behind. Insecticides based on pyrethrum and neem (azadirachtin) continue to be standard bearers in this class of pesticides, but globally, their increased presence is largely a consequence of introduction into new jurisdictions. Insecticides based on plant essential oils are just beginning to emerge as useful plant protectants. Some countries (such as Turkey, Uruguay, the United Arab Emirates, and Australia) have relaxed regulatory requirements for specific plant extracts and oils, while in North America and the European Union, stricter requirements have slowed progress toward commercialization of new products. Botanicals are likely to remain niche products in many agricultural regions and may have the greatest impact in developing countries in tropical regions where the source plants are readily available and conventional products are both expensive and dangerous to users. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Entomology, Volume 65 is January 7, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

10.
Curr Opin Biotechnol. 2019 Oct 5;62:48-57. doi: 10.1016/j.copbio.2019.08.014. [Epub ahead of print]

Microbial electrosynthesis from CO2: forever a promise?

Author information

1
Center for Microbial Ecology and Technology (CMET), Campus Coupure - Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium; CAPTURE, Belgium(4).
2
Center for Microbial Ecology and Technology (CMET), Campus Coupure - Ghent University, Coupure Links 653, 9000 Ghent, Belgium; CAPTURE, Belgium(4). Electronic address: Korneel.Rabaey@Ugent.be.

Abstract

Microbial electrosynthesis (MES) is an electrochemical process used to drive microbial metabolism for bio-production, such as the reduction of CO2 into industrially relevant organic products as an alternative to current fossil-fuel-derived commodities. After a decade of research on MES from CO2, figures of merit have increased significantly but are plateauing yet far from those expected to allow competitiveness for synthesis of commodity chemicals. Here we discuss the substantial technological shortcomings still associated with MES and evoke possible ways to mitigate them. It appears particularly challenging to obtain both relevant production rates (driven by high current densities) and energy conversion efficiency (i.e. low cell voltage) in microbial-compatible electrolytes. More competitive processes could arise by decoupling effective abiotic electroreductions (e.g. CO2 to CO or ethanol; H2 evolution) with subsequent fermentation processes.

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11.
Neurology. 2019 Oct 2. pii: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000008385. doi: 10.1212/WNL.0000000000008385. [Epub ahead of print]

Complex, intensive treatment shows promise against a complex aggressive disease.

Author information

1
From the Department of Brain Sciences (P.A.M.), Imperial College London, UK; and Neurological Institute (J.A.C.), Cleveland Clinic, OH. p.muraro@imperial.ac.uk.
2
From the Department of Brain Sciences (P.A.M.), Imperial College London, UK; and Neurological Institute (J.A.C.), Cleveland Clinic, OH.
12.
J Res Adolesc. 2019 Sep;29(3):542-550. doi: 10.1111/jora.12532.

The Practicalities and Perils of Ambulatory Assessment's Promise: Introduction to a Special Section.

Author information

1
Griffith University.
2
Harvard University.
3
University of California, Irvine.
4
University of Nevada, Reno.
5
The Pennsylvania State University.
6
University of Wisconsin, Madison.

Abstract

Ambulatory assessment (AA) offers one of the most exciting approaches for opening the dynamic "black box" of adolescents' daily lives. In this introduction, we spotlight AA's surprisingly restricted market share within adolescent scholarship. We describe thorny challenges these intense methods can pose when conducting adolescent research "in situ" and underscore that capturing quality AA data means placing adolescents' developmental stage at the forefront. The novel research reported in this special section speaks to these challenges and underscores the promise of AA for conducting developmentally salient science. The nine articles included in the section span multiple disciplines (Sociology, Psychology, Public Health) and reflect diverse viewpoints, approaches, and theories. All provide multiple novel best-practice strategies for conducting AA scholarship with adolescents.

13.
J Biomed Opt. 2019 Sep;24(9):1-16. doi: 10.1117/1.JBO.24.9.096010.

Quantification of multiphoton and fluorescence images of reproductive tissues from a mouse ovarian cancer model shows promise for early disease detection.

Author information

1
University of Arizona, College of Optical Sciences, Tucson, Arizona, United States.
2
University of Arizona, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Tucson, Arizona, United States.
3
Fox Chase Cancer Center, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.

Abstract

Ovarian cancer is the deadliest gynecologic cancer due predominantly to late diagnosis. Early detection of ovarian cancer can increase 5-year survival rates from 40% up to 92%, yet no reliable early detection techniques exist. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) is a relatively new imaging technique sensitive to endogenous fluorophores, which has tremendous potential for clinical diagnosis, though it is limited in its application to the ovaries. Wide-field fluorescence imaging (WFI) has been proposed as a complementary technique to MPM, as it offers high-resolution imagery of the entire organ and can be tailored to target specific biomarkers that are not captured by MPM imaging. We applied texture analysis to MPM images of a mouse model of ovarian cancer. We also conducted WFI targeting the folate receptor and matrix metalloproteinases. We find that texture analysis of MPM images of the ovary can differentiate between genotypes, which is a proxy for disease, with high statistical significance (p  <  0.001). The wide-field fluorescence signal also changes significantly between genotypes (p  <  0.01). We use the features to classify multiple tissue groups to over 80% accuracy. These results suggest that MPM and WFI are promising techniques for the early detection of ovarian cancer.

KEYWORDS:

fluorescence imaging; mouse model; multiphoton imaging; ovarian cancer

PMID:
31571434
DOI:
10.1117/1.JBO.24.9.096010
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14.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2019 Sep 30. doi: 10.1038/s41571-019-0267-4. [Epub ahead of print]

Combining epigenetic drugs with other therapies for solid tumours - past lessons and future promise.

Author information

1
ATIP-Avenir Group, UMR981, INSERM (French National Institute of Health and Medical Research), Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France.
2
Nuclear Dynamics Unit - UMR3664, National Centre for Scientific Research, Institut Curie, Paris, France.
3
University Hospital Brussels, Brussels, Belgium.
4
Nuclear Dynamics Unit - UMR3664, National Centre for Scientific Research, Institut Curie, Paris, France. genevieve.almouzni@curie.fr.
5
ATIP-Avenir Group, UMR981, INSERM (French National Institute of Health and Medical Research), Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France. sophie.postel-vinay@gustaveroussy.fr.
6
Drug Development Department (DITEP), Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Paris-Saclay University, Villejuif, France. sophie.postel-vinay@gustaveroussy.fr.

Abstract

Epigenetic dysregulation has long been recognized as a key factor contributing to tumorigenesis and tumour maintenance that can influence all of the recognized hallmarks of cancer. Despite regulatory approvals for the treatment of certain haematological malignancies, the efficacy of the first generation of epigenetic drugs (epi-drugs) in patients with solid tumours has been disappointing; however, successes have now been achieved in selected solid tumour subtypes, thanks to the development of novel compounds and a better understanding of cancer biology that have enabled precision medicine approaches. Several lines of evidence support that, beyond their potential as monotherapies, epigenetic drugs could have important roles in synergy with other anticancer therapies or in reversing acquired therapy resistance. Herein, we review the mechanisms by which epi-drugs can modulate the sensitivity of cancer cells to other forms of anticancer therapy, including chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone therapy, molecularly targeted therapy and immunotherapy. We provide a critical appraisal of the preclinical rationale, completed clinical studies and ongoing clinical trials relating to combination therapies incorporating epi-drugs. Finally, we propose and discuss rational clinical trial designs and drug development strategies, considering key factors including patient selection, tumour biomarker evaluation, drug scheduling and response assessment and study end points, with the aim of optimizing the development of such combinations.

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15.
Transfusion. 2019 Sep 29. doi: 10.1111/trf.15519. [Epub ahead of print]

Twenty-five years later: has ISBT 128 fulfilled its promise?

Author information

1
International Council for Commonality in Blood Bank Automation, Redlands, California.

Abstract

Traceability is essential to any quality program for medical products of human origin (MPHO). Standardized terminology, coding, and labeling systems that include key elements for traceability support electronically readable information on product labels and improve the accuracy and efficiency of data collection. ISBT 128 is such a system. The first specification for ISBT 128 was published 25 years ago, and since that time it has become the global standard for labeling and information transfer for MPHO. Additionally, standardization of granular product description codes has supported hemovigilance and other activities that depend on aggregated data. This review looks back over the development, current status, and potential future applications of the ISBT 128 Standard.

PMID:
31565803
DOI:
10.1111/trf.15519
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16.
Psychoanal Psychol. 2019 Jan;36(1):9-18. doi: 10.1037/pap0000177.

Therapist-Client Language Matching: Initial Promise as a Measure of Therapist-Client Relationship Quality.

Author information

1
Department of Psychology and Social Behavior, University of California, Irvine.
2
Department of Psychology, Pomona College.
3
Department of Psychology, Binghamton University.
4
Department of Psychiatry, Yale University School of Medicine.

Abstract

While research suggests that the therapeutic alliance is important in predicting outcomes of psychotherapy, relatively little is known about the development of the alliance or the moment-to-moment components of the relationship and how they combine to create an alliance, which may represent a serious limitation in existing methods of measurement. Language style matching (LSM), or the degree to which unconscious aspects of an interactional partner's language mimic that of the other partner, is a promising, unobtrusive measure of interaction quality that could provide novel insight into the therapist-client alliance. In this article, we present a theoretical argument regarding the trajectory of therapist-client LSM across therapy sessions, as well as potential precursors and consequences of LSM. We then report on a pilot test of our hypotheses that examined how LSM, clients' relational histories, and clients' symptoms were associated within a therapeutic context. Using a small sample of substance dependent mothers (N = 7, 100% Caucasian women) enrolled in a randomized controlled trial of psychodynamic psychotherapy lasting 12 sessions, we examined client and therapist LSM across 4 of the 12 sessions. We found that, on average, LSM decreases over the course of treatment. Furthermore, greater client interpersonal problems prospectively predict lower early LSM in therapist-client dyads, which in turn predicts greater posttreatment psychiatric distress. Results generate questions for future research and support further investigations of LSM as one index of the quality of interactions between therapist and client.

KEYWORDS:

language style matching; mentalization; psychotherapy process; substance dependence; therapeutic alliance

17.
Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2019 Sep 28. doi: 10.1002/cpt.1660. [Epub ahead of print]

The Promise and the Reality of Genomics to Guide Precision Medicine in Pediatric Oncology: The Decade Ahead.

Evans WE1,2, Pui CH3,2, Yang JJ1,2.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.
2
Hematological Malignancies Program, Comprehensive Cancer Center, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.
3
Department of Oncology, St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.

Abstract

Much has been written about the promise of "precision medicine", especially in oncology, where somatic mutations can influence the response of cancer cells to "targeted therapy". There have been successful examples of targeted therapy improving the outcome of some childhood cancers, such as the addition of an ABL class tyrosine kinase inhibitor to conventional chemotherapy substantially improving the cure rate for patients with BCR-ABL1 positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although there are other mutations serving as putative targets in various childhood leukemias and solid tumors, effective targeted therapy has yet to be established for them in prospective clinical trials. There are also uncertainties about which "targeted therapy" to use when patients have multiple targetable genomic lesions in their cancer cells, given the paucity of data upon which to develop evidence-based guidelines for selecting and integrating targeted agents for individual patients. There are also multiple examples of inherited germline variants for which evidence-based guidelines have been developed by CPIC to guide the selection and dosing of medications in children with cancer. Clinical pharmacology is poised to play a critical role in both the discovery and development of new targeted anticancer agents and their evidence-based translation into better treatment for children with cancer. To embrace these challenges and opportunities of "precision medicine", clinical and basic pharmacologists must expand the depth of our science and the bandwidth of our translational capacity, if we are to optimize precision medicine and advance the treatment of cancer in children and adults.

PMID:
31563145
DOI:
10.1002/cpt.1660
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18.
Clin Infect Dis. 2019 Sep 27. pii: ciz970. doi: 10.1093/cid/ciz970. [Epub ahead of print]

Perils, Pitfalls, and Promise of Primary Prophylaxis for Clostridioides difficile infection.

Author information

1
University of Houston College of Pharmacy.

KEYWORDS:

anaerobe infections; clinical trials; healthcare-acquired infections; primary prevention; vancomycin

19.
J Appl Physiol (1985). 2019 Sep 26. doi: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00381.2019. [Epub ahead of print]

Time-efficient physical training for enhancing cardiovascular function in mid-life and older adults: promise and current research gaps.

Author information

1
Department of Integrative Physiology, University of Colorado Boulder, United States.
2
Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, The University of Arizona, United States.
3
Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Canada.

Abstract

Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) remain the leading cause of death in developed societies, and "mid-life" (50-64 years) and older (65+) men and women bear the great majority of the burden of CVD. Much of the increased risk of CVD in this population is attributable to CV dysfunction, including adverse changes in the structure and function of the heart, increased systolic blood pressure, and arterial dysfunction. The latter is characterized by increased arterial stiffness and vascular endothelial dysfunction. Conventional aerobic exercise training, as generally recommended in public health guidelines, is an effective strategy to preserve or improve CV function with aging. However, <40% of mid-life and older adults meet aerobic exercise guidelines, due in part to time availability-related barriers. As such, there is a need to develop evidence-based, time-efficient exercise interventions that promote adherence and optimize CV function in these groups. Two promising interventions that may meet these criteria are interval training and inspiratory muscle strength training (IMST). Limited research suggests these modes of training may improve CV function with time commitments of <60 min/week. This review will summarize the current evidence for interval training and IMST to improve CV function in mid-life/older adults and identify key research gaps and future directions.

KEYWORDS:

aging; inspiratory muscle strength training; interval training

20.
Front Psychiatry. 2019 Sep 10;10:561. doi: 10.3389/fpsyt.2019.00561. eCollection 2019.

Psychiatric and Cognitive Aspects of Phenylketonuria: The Limitations of Diet and Promise of New Treatments.

Author information

1
Neuropsychiatry Unit, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
2
Statewide Adult Metabolic Service, Royal Melbourne Hospital, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
3
Melbourne Medical School, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
4
Melbourne Neuropsychiatry Centre, University of Melbourne and North-Western Mental Health, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.
5
Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC, Australia.

Abstract

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a recessive disorder of phenylalanine metabolism due to mutations in the gene for phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH). Reduced PAH activity results in significant hyperphenylalaninemia, which leads to alterations in cerebral myelin and protein synthesis, as well as reduced levels of serotonin, dopamine, and noradrenaline in the brain. When untreated, brain development is grossly disrupted and significant intellectual impairment and behavioral disturbance occur. The advent of neonatal heel prick screening has allowed for diagnosis at birth, and the institution of a phenylalanine restricted diet. Dietary treatment, particularly when maintained across neurodevelopment and well into adulthood, has resulted in markedly improved outcomes at a cognitive and psychiatric level for individuals with PKU. However, few individuals can maintain full dietary control lifelong, and even with good control, an elevated risk remains of-in particular-mood, anxiety, and attentional disorders across the lifespan. Increasingly, dietary recommendations focus on maintaining continuous dietary treatment lifelong to optimize psychiatric and cognitive outcomes, although the effect of long-term protein restricted diets on brain function remains unknown. While psychiatric illness is very common in adult PKU populations, very little data exist to guide clinicians on optimal treatment. The advent of new treatments that do not require restrictive dietary management, such as the enzyme therapy Pegvaliase, holds the promise of allowing patients a relatively normal diet alongside optimized mental health and cognitive functioning.

KEYWORDS:

anxiety; cognitive function; depression; phenylketonuria; psychiatric

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