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J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2010 Oct;49(4):647-54. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc.2010.04.016. Epub 2010 May 6.

Il-19 reduces VSMC activation by regulation of mRNA regulatory factor HuR and reduction of mRNA stability.

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Department of Physiology, Temple University School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19140, USA.


While much is known about the deleterious effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines on development of vascular disease, little is reported on the direct effects of anti-inflammatory cytokines on the vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) response to injury. Interleukin-19 (IL-19) is a recently described Th2, anti-inflammatory interleukin. We have previously reported that IL-19 is absent in normal VSMC, but induced in VSMC by inflammatory cytokines and in arteries by injury. IL-19 is anti-proliferative for VSMC. The purpose of this study is to determine the molecular mechanism of these effects. In cultured, primary human VSMC, IL-19 reduces abundance of proliferative and inflammatory gene proteins and mRNA, including Cyclin D1, IL-1beta, IL-8, and COX2. IL-19 does not inhibit NF-kappaB, but does transiently reduce cytoplasmic abundance of the mRNA stability factor HuR. The mRNA stabilizing function of HuR is linked to its phosphorylation and cytoplasmic translocation. IL-19 reduces serine phosphorylation of HuR, and activation of PKCalpha, a known regulator of HuR translocation. Actinomycin D transcription blockade demonstrates that IL-19 treatment significantly reduces stability of proliferative and inflammatory mRNAs. Knock down of HuR with siRNA also reduces stability of these inflammatory mRNA transcripts. These data indicate that IL-19 has direct effects on VSMC mRNA stability. One potential mechanism whereby IL-19 reduces the VSMC response to injury is by regulation of HuR abundance and cytoplasmic translocation, with a subsequent decrease in mRNA half-life of proliferative and inflammatory mRNA transcripts.

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