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Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl. 2019 Apr;97:529-538. doi: 10.1016/j.msec.2018.12.059. Epub 2018 Dec 19.

Antibacterial bone substitute of hydroxyapatite and magnesium oxide to prevent dental and orthopaedic infections.

Author information

1
i3S - Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, U. Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen, 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal; INEB - Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica (INEB), U. Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen, 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal; FEUP - Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, U. Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, s/n, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal; FLUIDINOVA, S.A., Maia, Rua Engenheiro Frederico Ulrich, 2650, 4470-605 Moreira da Maia, Portugal. Electronic address: catarina.coelho@i3s.up.pt.
2
i3S - Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, U. Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen, 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal; INEB - Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica (INEB), U. Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen, 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal.
3
FLUIDINOVA, S.A., Maia, Rua Engenheiro Frederico Ulrich, 2650, 4470-605 Moreira da Maia, Portugal.
4
i3S - Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, U. Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen, 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal; INEB - Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica (INEB), U. Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen, 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal; ISEP - Instituto Superior de Engenharia do Porto, Instituto Politécnico do Porto, Rua Dr. António Bernardino de Almeida, 431, 4200-072 Porto, Portugal.
5
i3S - Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, U. Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen, 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal; INEB - Instituto de Engenharia Biomédica (INEB), U. Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen, 208, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal; FEUP - Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, U. Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, s/n, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal.

Abstract

Bone substitutes market is growing due to the great demand for bone regenerative therapies. However, most of the actual products available in the market are incapable of inhibiting bacterial colonization, which can lead to tissue infection and possible implant failure. Some bone substitutes are combined with antibiotics to avoid the development of implant-associated infections, but the growing bacterial resistance to antibiotics often makes these products ineffective. Therefore, it is mandatory to develop new and alternative approaches. In the present work, a granular bone substitute of hydroxyapatite was produced, where different percentages of magnesium oxide were introduced. The antibacterial activity and biofilm formation was evaluated towards Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The inclusion of magnesium oxide particles reduced bacterial growth and biofilm formation in a concentration-dependent manner, when compared with pure hydroxyapatite materials. Superior antibacterial activity and inhibition of biofilm formation was observed for Staphylococcus aureus with complete eradication when magnesium oxide percentages were equal or above 3 wt%. The materials cytotoxicity was assessed under ISO 10993-5:2009 guidance and through Live/Dead cell marking and none of the produced granules was cytotoxic. In addition, reactive oxygen species production was also evaluated and the results revealed that the exposure to the materials extracts did not induce the formation of reactive oxygen species by cells.

KEYWORDS:

Antibacterial; Biomaterials; Bone substitute; Hydroxyapatite; Implant-associated infections; Magnesium oxide

PMID:
30678939
DOI:
10.1016/j.msec.2018.12.059
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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