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Nat Biotechnol. 2007 Oct;25(10):1165-70. Epub 2007 Sep 23.

Renal clearance of quantum dots.

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Division of Hematology/Oncology, Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, 330 Brookline Avenue, Room SL-B05, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.


The field of nanotechnology holds great promise for the diagnosis and treatment of human disease. However, the size and charge of most nanoparticles preclude their efficient clearance from the body as intact nanoparticles. Without such clearance or their biodegradation into biologically benign components, toxicity is potentially amplified and radiological imaging is hindered. Using intravenously administered quantum dots in rodents as a model system, we have precisely defined the requirements for renal filtration and urinary excretion of inorganic, metal-containing nanoparticles. Zwitterionic or neutral organic coatings prevented adsorption of serum proteins, which otherwise increased hydrodynamic diameter by >15 nm and prevented renal excretion. A final hydrodynamic diameter <5.5 nm resulted in rapid and efficient urinary excretion and elimination of quantum dots from the body. This study provides a foundation for the design and development of biologically targeted nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

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