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Behav Brain Res. 2014 Jul 1;267:133-43. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2014.03.038. Epub 2014 Mar 27.

No role for vitamin D or a moderate fat diet in aging induced cognitive decline and emotional reactivity in C57BL/6 mice.

Author information

1
Division of Human Nutrition, Nutrition and Health Group/Nutrition and Epidemiology Group/Nutrition, Metabolism and Genomics Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: Elske.Brouwer-Brolsma@wur.nl.
2
Department of Animal Sciences, Animal Nutrition Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
3
Division of Human Nutrition, Nutrition and Health Group/Nutrition and Epidemiology Group/Nutrition, Metabolism and Genomics Group, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
4
SILS/CNS, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
5
Faculty of Veterinary Science, Department of Animals in Science & Society, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
6
Faculty of Veterinary Science, Department of Farm Animal Health, Emotion & Cognition Group, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
7
Department of Clinical Chemistry, Move Research Institute VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Epidemiological studies have shown associations between vitamin D, mental health and glucose homeostasis in the elderly. Causal evidence, however, is still lacking.

OBJECTIVE:

The objective of this study was to investigate the importance of vitamin D in the prevention of emotional disturbances and cognitive decline in aging C57BL/6 mice, with pre-diabetes type II as potential effect modifier.

METHODS:

Mice were exposed to one of four diets from 10 months till 24 months of age: low fat vitamin D adequate (LFD), LF vitamin D deficient (LF), moderate fat vitamin D adequate (MFD), and MF vitamin D deficient (MF). The MFD/MF diet was applied to induce a condition resembling pre-diabetes type II. Behavior was assessed twice in the same group of mice at 6-8 and at 22-23 months of age using the Open Field Test (OFT), Elevated Plus Maze (EPM), Object Recognition Test (ORT) and the Morris Water Maze (MWM).

RESULTS:

We successfully induced vitamin D deficiency in the LF/MF mice. Moreover, fasting glucose and fasting insulin levels were significantly higher in MFD/MF mice than in LFD/LF mice. A significant aging effect was observed for most behavioral parameters. A MF(D) diet was shown to delay or prevent the age-related increase in emotional reactivity in the EPM. No effect of vitamin D or vitamin D*fat on behavioral outcomes was measured.

CONCLUSION:

Aging significantly affected emotional reactivity and cognitive performance. Although other studies have shown effects of vitamin D on emotional reactivity and cognitive performance in mice, these findings could not be confirmed in aged C57BL/6 mice in this study.

KEYWORDS:

Aging; Cognition; Emotional reactivity; Pre diabetes type II; Vitamin D

PMID:
24680988
DOI:
10.1016/j.bbr.2014.03.038
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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