Send to

Choose Destination
  • Filters activated: Field: Title Word. Clear all
Can Respir J. 2018 Jun 19;2018:2732017. doi: 10.1155/2018/2732017. eCollection 2018.

Inhaled Therapy in Respiratory Disease: The Complex Interplay of Pulmonary Kinetic Processes.

Author information

Drug Discovery Sciences, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharma GmbH & Co. KG, Biberach an der Riss, Germany.
Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Biochemistry, Institute of Pharmacy, Freie Universitaet Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
Translational Medicine and Clinical Pharmacology, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals Inc., Ridgefield, CT, USA.


The inhalation route is frequently used to administer drugs for the management of respiratory diseases such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Compared with other routes of administration, inhalation offers a number of advantages in the treatment of these diseases. For example, via inhalation, a drug is directly delivered to the target organ, conferring high pulmonary drug concentrations and low systemic drug concentrations. Therefore, drug inhalation is typically associated with high pulmonary efficacy and minimal systemic side effects. The lung, as a target, represents an organ with a complex structure and multiple pulmonary-specific pharmacokinetic processes, including (1) drug particle/droplet deposition; (2) pulmonary drug dissolution; (3) mucociliary and macrophage clearance; (4) absorption to lung tissue; (5) pulmonary tissue retention and tissue metabolism; and (6) absorptive drug clearance to the systemic perfusion. In this review, we describe these pharmacokinetic processes and explain how they may be influenced by drug-, formulation- and device-, and patient-related factors. Furthermore, we highlight the complex interplay between these processes and describe, using the examples of inhaled albuterol, fluticasone propionate, budesonide, and olodaterol, how various sequential or parallel pulmonary processes should be considered in order to comprehend the pulmonary fate of inhaled drugs.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Hindawi Limited Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center